Theorie und Praxis - Theoretical and Practical Dimensions
Edited By Gerd-Bodo von Carlsburg
This volume presents contributions of the 16
Fulfilment of the Spiritual Demands of the Students of Lithuanian Universities by Cultural Values 155
Ona Tijnlien, Marija Barkauskait Fulfilment of the Spiritual Demands of the Students of Lithuanian Universities by Cultural Values Introduction: Special mission falls on the spiritual sciences, which include his- tory and its stages (philosophy, religion, language, literature, art, law, society). They explore phenomena, which belong not to the nature, but to the historical world of human spirit. Besides science of logic, as the pure idea, already German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) distinguished natural and spiritual sciences. To motivate theoretically the spiritual sciences as empirical and also as formed like historical sciences tried another German philosopher W. Dilthey (1833-1911). He showed that natural sciences explain things and processes as the repeating events, which are bound in nature by the causality laws, and the spiritual sciences try to understand historically the onetime things and events, which are bound by various notional spiritual ties. Similarly thought the German scientist H. Rick- ert (1863-1936): against natural sciences, which do not pay attention to the in- dividuality, he opposed the cultural sciences, which use the “individualising” method trying to understand what is individual, he also stressed the unique his- torical cultural importance of these sciences and their high place in the scale of values. W. Windelband (1848-1915) named some sciences as belonging to laws and the others – as the ideographical sciences of events. In the 19th cen- tury F.D. Schleiermacher actualized the problem of the breakaway of old texts from nowadays. Hermeneutics tried to solve problems on the basis and expand- ing the F.D. Schleiermacher’s...
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