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Multilingual Norms

Madalena Cruz-Ferreira

Multilinguals are not multiple monolinguals. Yet multilingual assessment proceeds through monolingual norms, as if fair conclusions were possible in the absence of fair comparison. In addition, multilingualism concerns what people do with language, not what languages do to people. Yet research focus remains on multilinguals’ languages, as if languages existed despite their users. This book redresses these paradoxes. Multilingual scholars, teachers and speech-language clinicians from Europe, Asia, Australia and the US contribute the first studies dedicated to multilingual norms, those found in real-life multilingual development, assessment and use. Readership includes educators, clinicians, decision-makers and researchers interested in multilingualism.


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Index/Glossary 405


405 Index / Glossary It is not always the case that scholars use technical terms in the same way. The purpose of the Glossary within this Index is to clarify uses of terminology in this book. Here, too, different authors use the “same” terms in specific ways. Glos- sary definitions are proposed by the chapter authors themselves and some will naturally be debatable. The Glossary thus contains neither textbook-like or watered-down definitions of terms across chapters, which would defeat its pur- pose, nor entries for terms whose definitions are consensual in the literature and among chapter authors. Page numbers below do not necessarily refer to the exact entry term, but rather to first mention and/or discussion of what the term represents, in each chapter. Where acronyms are in more widespread use than their expanded counterparts, only the acronym is indexed. Glossary entries are in boldface, with alternative definitions numbered. Bullets indicate sub-entries and italics cross- refer to other entries. Accent, 79, 80, 93 Accommodation, 15 Acquisition, 12, 113, 349, 353. See also language. • age of __, 57 • incomplete __, 36, 42, 44, 46 • milestones in __, 74, 88, 114, 131 • norms of __, 142 • paradigmatic __, 58 • speech __, 54, 62 • syntagmatic __, 58 Adjective/Adjectival comparative, 97, 100, 107 Adult-directed speech, 144, 148, 154, 158, 168. See also motherese. Agent noun/Agentive, 100, 101 Aligned vowel/word, see vowel. Alingualism, see semilingualism. Allophones, 76, 84, 87 Alphabetic script, see orthography. Alphasyllabic script, see orthography. Synonymous with semisyllabic script. ASHA (American Speech-Language- Hearing Association), 259, 351, 382 Aspiration, 62, 79,...

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