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Skill Formation Regimes in South Asia

A Comparative Study on the Path-Dependent Development of Technical and Vocational Education and Training for the Garment Industry

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Markus Maurer

In the face of accelerated economic globalisation, many of the industries in economically less developed countries have become more technology-intensive. Skill formation processes, both inside and outside firms, are therefore changing. This study scrutinises such transformations by comparing – from the perspective of historical institutionalism – the skill formation regimes of the garment industries in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It sheds light on the differences between the trajectories of the in-firm skill formation regimes of the two countries, and reveals the important part that varying paths of educational development in both countries have played in shaping these trajectories. At the same time, the study shows how, in both countries, state-led skill formation regimes have been transformed not only by market forces and the growing importance of corporate business interests, but also by the social demand for educational credentials.

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List of abbreviations XVII

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADB Asian Development Bank ATC Agreement on Textiles and Clothing B.A. Bachelor of Arts B.Sc. Bachelor of Science BEPZA Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority BGMEA Bangladesh Garments Manufactures and Exporters Association BKMEA Bangladesh Knitwear Manufactures and Exporters Association BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party BOI Board of Investment BTMA Bangladesh Textile Manufacturers Association BUET Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology CIMA Chartered Institute of Management Accountants CITI Clothing Industry Training Centre CTM Cutting, Trimming, Making DFI Development Finance Institutes DFID Department for International Development EC (Delegation of the) European Commission EPB Export Promotion Bureau EPZ Export Processing Zone XVIII Maurer: Skill Formation Regimes in South Asia XVIII EU European Union FDI Foreign Direct Investment FTZ Free Trade Zone FTZMA Free Trade Zone Manufacturers Association GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GCEC Greater Colombo Economic Commission GDP Gross Domestic Product GSP Generalised System of Preferences HSC Higher Secondary Certificate HSC BM Higher Secondary Certificate in Business Management HSC VOC Higher Secondary Certificate Vocational IFC International Finance Corporation ILO International Labour Organisation IMF International Monetary Fund ITAC Industry Training Advisory Committee ITC International Trade Centre ITUM Institute of Technology of the University of Moratuwa JAAF Joint Apparel Association Forum JVP Janatha Vimukthi Perumana MFA Multi-Fibre Agreement NAB National Apprenticeship Board NAEA National Apparel Exporters Association NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAITA National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority NCSU North Carolina State University NDT National Diploma of Technology NGO Non-governmental organisation NHRDC National Human Resources Development Council NIBM National Institute...

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