Deutsche und koreanische Studien zu Epistemologie, Anthropologie, Ethik und Politischer Philosophie- German and Korean Studies in Epistemology, Anthropology, Ethics and Political Philosophy
Edited By Hong-Bin Lim and Georg Mohr
The contributions in this book are from a transcultural perspective and devoted to problems in epistemology, anthropology, ethics and political philosophy. Under the title Menschsein – On Being Human, Korean and German philosophers discuss topics to do with one world: universal and local discourses about culture and transculturality in the age of globalization, the role of religion, public rationality, transcultural justice, and the universality of human rights.
ETHIK UND MORAL 257
Ethik und Moral 259 Hyoung-Chan Kim Two Ways to ‘Inner Sage and Outer Sovereign’. Centered on Li and Sangje in Toegye’s Philosophy 1. The Two Ways In Confucianism, the calling of academics is to lead humanity to live in a harmo- nious society together with others by becoming wise and ethical. This aim is summarized in the Confucian phrase, ‘inner sage and outer sovereign’ (內聖外王). To achieve this aim, Confucianism mainly relies upon explanation and rational arguments that humanity, a component of nature, inherently has a talent by which it can realize the state of ‘inner sage and outer sovereign,’ and that the most desirable life is one of exerting one’s capabilities to the maximum extent, in accordance with the principle of nature (天人合一). Especially, Neo-Confucianism, a metaphysical theoretical system based on the Confucianism of Confucius and Mencius, described the whole world from the creation of the universe to the creation, growth, prosperity and termination of all beings and to human ceremonial occasions, as forming a coherent system. Additionally, Neo-Confucianism even suggested the method for learning and the cultivation of one’s mind as well as the method of practice, so that the operative principle of Neo-Confucianism, the laws of physics as well as ethical norms, can be exercised in daily life. According to Neo-Confucianism, the learning and the cultivation of one’s mind to arrive at the state of ‘inner sage and outer sovereign’ started from a pre- cise understanding of nature. And humans, the product and component of nature, can overcome...
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