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(Post)transformational Migration

Inequalities, Welfare State, and Horizontal Mobility

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Edited By Marek Nowak and Michal Nowosielski

Perceived inequalities, such as the lack of a proper job or bad living conditions, can play the role of push factors that make people migrate. Apart from this, there are studies which focus more on relative deprivation, exacerbated by inequality, as a basic determinant of people’s mobility, and also some are focused on the influence of income inequality on migration. Such «structural conditions» are only a part of the story of migration, particularly because differences and inequalities are social facts, elements of the universal shape of modern open societies. Ultimately inequality, as more general departure point, can’t be merely an element of explanation, and it is important to remember that not only do «objective» social differences and the inequalities caused by them foster migration behaviour, but so do their social perceptions.

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Introduction. Inequalities and migration in Central and Eastern European countries (Marek Nowak, Michał Nowosielski) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Part I The Problem of Welfare State, Inequalities, Migration, and Politics Marek Nowak, Inequalities and Migration (Mainly from the Polish Perspective). Why Do Central and Eastern European Societies Need More Welfare States? 23 Alena Pařízková, Working Europeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Guglielmo Meardi, Labour mobility, union immobility? Trade unions & migration in the EU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Serena Romano, Poverty and welfare reforms in Eastern Europe . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Iveta Ķešāne, Emigration as a Strategy of Everyday Politics: the Case of Latvian Labour Emigrants in Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Bartłomiej Walczak, Economic, class, and gender inequalities in parental migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Part II The Differing Contexts of Migration Konrad Miciukiewicz, Migration and Asylum in Central Eastern Europe: The impacts of European Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Michał Nowosielski, Growth and decline—the situation of Polish immigrant organizations in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Ingrid Jungwirth, The change of normative gender orders in the course of migration: highly qualified migrant women in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Francesca Alice Vianello, Suspended migrants. Return migration to Ukraine . 251 Marta Kolankiewicz, Experiences of Racism and Discrimination among Male Immigrants in Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 6 Introduction

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