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Patterns of Linguistic Variation in American Legal English

A Corpus-Based Study

Series:

Stanislaw Gozdz-Roszkowski

Translators, law students or legal professionals who begin to deal with legal language face a bewildering variety of legal writings. Even though legal language has been examined from a multitude of perspectives, there are virtually no studies explicitly addressing variation in legal English in terms of recurrent linguistic patterns. This book is a first step towards filling this gap. It provides a corpus-based linguistic description of variation among several selected legal genres, including vocabulary distribution and use (keywords), extended lexical expressions (lexical bundles), and lexico-syntactic co-occurrence patterns (multidimensional analysis). The findings are interpreted in functional terms in an attempt to provide an overall characterization of the most commonly encountered types of legal language.

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Appendix B 261

Extract

APPENDIX B Mean scores and the results of statistical procedures and tests for the legal genres along the 1988 dimensions The SAS System ---------------------------------------------------- genre=Academic ---------------------------------------------------- The MEANS Procedure Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ dim1 71 -17.5870423 4.8892361 -24.1900000 6.5900000 dim2 71 -3.1280282 0.7716950 -4.9700000 -1.1700000 dim3 71 2.6822535 2.7915516 -1.4900000 8.9800000 dim4 71 -1.5271831 1.5677830 -3.9500000 4.1100000 dim5 71 3.91690141.9827921 0.0600000 10.9300000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ ----------------------------------------------------- genre=Bills ------------------------------------------------------ Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ dim1 60 -23.9590000 2.5427455 -30.6200000 -13.0500000 dim2 60 -4.9410000 0.3418975 -5.7300000 -3.8900000 dim3 60 10.4653333 2.4230444 4.0700000 14.8900000 dim4 60 -1.5976667 1.4165551 -5.7200000 2.3000000 dim5 60 6.4856667 2.2806685 1.5400000 12.4000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ ----------------------------------------------------- genre=Briefs ----------------------------------------------------- Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ dim1 63 -18.0701587 2.1291953 -22.6500000 -10.8500000 dim2 63 -2.7790476 0.8477974 -4.2700000 0.4900000 dim3 63 6.7865079 1.4563456 2.5300000 9.6300000 dim4 63 -1.9042857 1.2104208 -4.0300000 0.3200000 dim5 63 4.7238095 1.5025274 1.9200000 9.9500000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ ---------------------------------------------------- genre=Contract ---------------------------------------------------- Patterns of Linguistic Variation in Legal English. A Corpus-based Study 262 Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ dim1 177 -19.2581921 2.9662279 -26.5100000 -8.5500000 dim2 177 -4.2226554 0.8436348 -5.7300000 0.1400000 dim3 177 9.6989266 3.1045300 0.2200000 27.2200000 dim4 177 0.6636158 2.5489390 -6.6100000 8.6200000 dim5 177 8.1707910 4.2286643 -1.4300000 43.8600000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ The SAS System ---------------------------------------------------- genre=Professional article ---------------------------------------------------- The MEANS Procedure Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ dim1 100 -16.1892000 6.7801927 31.4500000 4.9700000 dim2 100 -2.8639000 1.4409228 -5.2000000 1.8000000 dim3 100 6.8347000 2.7816551 -2.0700000 14.0000000 dim4 100 1.2100000 3.9749130 -5.0500000 17.6400000 dim5 100 5.0477000 2.7538116 -0.8000000 14.8600000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ ---------------------------------------------------- genre...

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