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Indirect and Direct Aggression

Karin Österman

Indirect and Direct Aggression consists of 24 chapters written by distinguished scholars within the field of aggression research, covering indirect aggression, bullying in schools, adult bullying, and societal and biological aspects of aggression. Indirect aggression is the most typical form of aggression used by women in most cultures. It is an aggressive strategy that is carried out by means of social manipulation that enables the perpetrator to go unnoticed and thereby escape retaliation. Knowledge about indirect aggression and its mechanisms is crucial for all anti-bullying efforts, among children and adults alike. Although briefly covered in early research on human aggression, the study of indirect aggression originates, beginning from the mid-1980s, from a research group in Finland, lead by Professor Kaj Björkqvist of Åbo Akademi University. The book can be used as a textbook at university level.

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Part II. Bullying in Schools

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Part II Bullying in Schools __________________________________________________________________________________________ Correspondence should be addressed to Dan Olweus, Research Center for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. E-mail: olweus@psyhp.uib.no The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Effects of Classroom Components at Different Grade Levels Dan Olweus1 and Jan Helge Kallestad2 1Research Center for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, Norway 2Bergen University College and Research Center for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, Norway The main aims of the present study were to find out if there were cer- tain classroom components of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Pro- gram (OBPP) that were more effective than other such components in reducing bully/victim problems and if the use and effectiveness of such components varied or interacted with grade level. The empirical data for addressing these questions consisted of implementation data from 78 teachers and classroom-aggregated self-report data on reduc- tions in being bullied over a one-year period by 1695 Norwegian stu- dents in grades 5 (6) through 8 (9). Three classroom measures, class/school rules against bullying, class meetings and use of role play, combined into an additive index Effective Classroom Measures, were clearly more effective (in the context of the OBPP) than other measures and predicted 27 percent of the total variance corresponding to a dosage-response relationship of r = .52. However, Effective Classroom Measures interacted with grade level suggesting that the less positive results with older students were either a consequence of poorer implementation and/or of weaker effects of the effective class- room measures in these grades. Possible explanations of...

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