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Indirect and Direct Aggression

Karin Österman

Indirect and Direct Aggression consists of 24 chapters written by distinguished scholars within the field of aggression research, covering indirect aggression, bullying in schools, adult bullying, and societal and biological aspects of aggression. Indirect aggression is the most typical form of aggression used by women in most cultures. It is an aggressive strategy that is carried out by means of social manipulation that enables the perpetrator to go unnoticed and thereby escape retaliation. Knowledge about indirect aggression and its mechanisms is crucial for all anti-bullying efforts, among children and adults alike. Although briefly covered in early research on human aggression, the study of indirect aggression originates, beginning from the mid-1980s, from a research group in Finland, lead by Professor Kaj Björkqvist of Åbo Akademi University. The book can be used as a textbook at university level.

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Part III. Adult Bullying

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Part III Adult Bullying __________________________________________________________________________________________ Correspondence should be addressed to Jane L. Ireland, School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK, PR1 3NE. E-mail: JLIreland1@uclan.ac.uk. Psychological Health, Social Self-Esteem and Bullying Behaviour among Prisoners: A Study of Juvenile, Young and Adult Male Prisoners Jane L. Ireland1,2 and Nadeya Hafiz3 1School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK 2Psychological Services, Ashworth High Secure Hospital, Liverpool, UK 3Psychological Services, Stockton Hall Hospital, York, UK The current study explores psychological health, social self-esteem and bullying behaviour among young, juvenile and adult prisoners, with core aims of identifying the characteristics associated with bully- ing and examining differences between adults and adolescents. The current study is the first to directly examine such differences with an adult and adolescent incarcerated sample. Five hundred and twenty- nine prisoners (90 young, average age 19; 90 juveniles, average age 16; and 348 adults, average age 33) completed a measure of psycho- logical health, social self-esteem and of behaviours indicative of bul- lying others and/or being bullied directly and indirectly. Juveniles were more likely than adults or young prisoners to report the perpetra- tion of direct bullying, with young prisoners less likely to report over- all victimisation than juveniles and adults. Young prisoners were less likely to be classified as bully/victims than juveniles, and more likely identified as those not-involved. Overall, pure victims presented with lower self-esteem than the other groups and higher psychological dis- tress than pure bullies and those not-involved. Pure victims presented with higher...

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