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Environmental Management Systems in Local Public Authorities

A Comparative Study of the Introduction and Implementation of EMAS in the United Kingdom and Germany

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Martin Jungwirth

This study analyses the introduction and implementation processes of the European environmental management standard EMAS in modern local public administrations in the UK and Germany. Based on the different political and institutional settings, a qualitative analysis reveals the effects of the policy instrument. The study comes to the conclusion that the organizational processes are mostly dependent on the dominant actors within each organization. The orientation towards New Public Management can be beneficial for organizations working with EMAS while others can use it to start a modernization process. On a national level, EMAS is a classical case of an innovative, voluntary and flexible policy instrument with an imperfect national implementation that has dramatic effects on its use.

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2 Public Administration in the United Kingdom and Germany 35

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2 Public Administration in the United Kingdom and Germany 2.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of public administration’s developments in the United Kingdom and Germany beginning in the post- war era – with a special focus on local public administration. After a definition of the central term of this chapter, a brief look at the development towards the post-feudal administrative structures is given. It is followed by a country specific overview of public administrative science. After that, a description of developments of public administration organisations within the last decades in the two countries gives an overview of the major issues within the field of public administration reform. In addition, there is a description of the national developments regarding the latest reform developments, especially the intro- duction and implementation of New Public Management in both countries, again with a focus on the local level. Finally, a discussion of the chapter’s relevance connects it with the overall goal of the study. 2.2 Central terms: Public administration, modernisation and reform ‘Public administration’ is a complex term because the definition inherits two major problems. One is the fact that it is difficult to include all characteristics of an administration since the concrete administration itself can be quite diverging (Ellwein 1993, p. 6). Another is that the term ‘administration’ is a daily phenomenon and, at the same time, a living reality. Therefore, it is easy to define it in a common and colloquial way, but it is more difficult to...

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