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Environmental Management Systems in Local Public Authorities

A Comparative Study of the Introduction and Implementation of EMAS in the United Kingdom and Germany

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Martin Jungwirth

This study analyses the introduction and implementation processes of the European environmental management standard EMAS in modern local public administrations in the UK and Germany. Based on the different political and institutional settings, a qualitative analysis reveals the effects of the policy instrument. The study comes to the conclusion that the organizational processes are mostly dependent on the dominant actors within each organization. The orientation towards New Public Management can be beneficial for organizations working with EMAS while others can use it to start a modernization process. On a national level, EMAS is a classical case of an innovative, voluntary and flexible policy instrument with an imperfect national implementation that has dramatic effects on its use.

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3 The policy instrument EMAS: From the development on the European level towards the national implementation in the UK and Germany 57

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3 The policy instrument EMAS: From the development on the European level towards the national implementation in the UK and Germany 3.1 Introduction This chapter deals with the development of the EMAS regulation24 both on a European as well as on a national level in the UK and Germany. First, a general overview of the main features of the European environmental management standard is given. It is then followed by a discussion of the political and historical development of the first regulation on the European environmental management system EMAS I. The second part of this chapter is an overview of the EMAS II regulation as of 2001 as well as a brief outline of the major changes comparing the initial and the revised version of the regulation. A third part deals with the second revision of the EMAS regulation, the so-called EMAS III, which is currently under way. Addition- ally, a short overview of the situation of the two most-used and competing environmental management systems, EMAS and ISO 14001, is given due to the fact that with the EMAS II regulation both EMS are interchangeable to a large extent. The fourth part of this chapter deals with the regulatory and institutional implementation of EMAS in the UK and Germany, followed by an overview of the overall development of EMAS in each country. The fifth and final part concentrates on the use of EMAS within public authorities in both countries and closes with an outlook on EMAS, both regarding its general...

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