Edited By Claudia Gerdenitsch and Johanna Hopfner
Rural Education has always been – and still is – confronted with ambivalent challenges. Emancipation efforts and political interests shape the framework for rural education programmes and their local institutional, media and curricular implementation. The book gives insight into popular education concepts in various countries in Europe, America, Asia and Africa. The variety of perspectives enables systematic understanding of rural education processes as well as international comparison.
Volksaufklärung und Bildungspolitik –Popular Education and Educational Policy
Volksaufklärung und Bildungspolitik Popular Education and Educational Policy 155 Progressive Education and Rural Reform David M. Ment As early-twentieth-century educators began to look closely at relatively under- developed countries, they found many variants on a general pattern: the mass of the people lived in rural villages, were largely unschooled, and lacked the re- sources and skills to emerge from poverty. The need for improved health, nutri- tion, and sanitation was obvious; in many places, where farming was the chief occupation, people lacked sufficient food. Education, if it were to contribute to general improvement, would have to address the problem of agricultural devel- opment; it would have to find ways to teach peasants to be better farmers. Educators were, of course, aware of the context of their work. In some cases, educators were asked to help chart policy for colonial territories where the rhe- toric of uplift of colonial peoples served as an element of the claim of colonial legitimacy. In the years after the First World War, educational development was promoted as one of the justifications for the system of mandates, under which the victorious powers governed territories in the Middle East that were formerly part of the Ottoman Empire. And in places like Turkey and post-mandate Iraq, governments called on educators to help build new nation-states. Fundamental features of rural economies also inevitably shaped educational planning. The varying prevalence of large plantations or small freeholdings, of semi-feudal relationships between tenant farmers and landlords; of subsistence farming or production...
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