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Diversity and Changing Values in Address

Spanish Address Pronoun Usage in an Intercultural Immigrant Context

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Jo-anne Patricia Hughson

Different national varieties of Spanish, for instance Argentinian, Colombian and Mexican, use different address systems, with different numbers of pronouns, and also give pronouns a different social significance. For the first time, this study discusses and analyses these paradigms in the context of inter-varietal contact in a third country, with English as an additional contact language. A multiplicity of data collection methods made it possible to uncover many new insights into address behaviour. New definitions for address pronouns are proposed, and issues arising from address are discussed, such as: awareness, proficiency, avoidance, accommodation, and uncertainty. In addition, some unexpected practices emerged, which call into question all previously accepted norms of usage.

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Tables and Figures 7 Acknowledgments 9 1 Introduction 11 2 Address Pronoun Studies: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Brown and Gilman 15 2.3 Theoretical issues: address pronoun research since Brown and Gilman 18 2.4 Methodological considerations 31 2.5 Conclusion 37 3 History and Empiricial Studies of Address Pronoun Use in Spanish 39 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 The evolution of address pronouns from Imperial Latin 39 3.3 Address pronoun evolution in Spanish 42 3.4 Current address paradigms in Spanish: differing regional and national norms 53 3.5 Summary 93 4 Spanish in Australia: Bilingualism, Language Contact and Pluricentrism 95 4.1 Introduction 95 4.2 Spanish-speaking Australia 96 4.3 Some frameworks for Spanish language maintenance and shift in Australia 98 4.4 Address competence amongst bilinguals 104 4.5 Issues of pluricentrism in address 111 4.6 The role of cultural values 120 4.7 Accommodation theory and intergroup relations 122 4.8 Summary 126 5 5 Methodological Considerations 129 5.1 Research questions 129 5.2 Methodological choices 129 5.3 The focus group 132 5.4 Characteristics of participants 144 5.5 Participant observation and naturalistic data collection 147 5.6 The interviews 149 5.7 Summary 151 6 Reported Data: Interview Results 153 6.1 Introduction 153 6.2 A survey of the meanings of tit, vos and usted 153 6.3 Perceptions of the effect of classic sociolinguistic variables 169 6.4 Progress summary: defining Spanish address pronouns 175 6.5 Issues associated with address usage 179 6.6 Summary 228 7 Participant Observation and Naturalistic Data Collection 231 7.1 Introduction 231 7.2 Address...

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