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Meaning in Translation

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Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and Marcel Thelen

Contents: Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk: Translation studies: Cognitive linguistics and corpora – Marcel Thelen: Translation studies: Terminology in theory and practice – Jeanne Dancette: Understanding translators’ understanding – Kinga Klaudy: Specification and generalisation of meaning in translation – Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk: Re-conceptualization and the emergence of discourse meaning as a theory of translation – Wolfgang Lörscher: Form- and sense-oriented approaches to translation revisited – Peter Newmark: Translation and culture (dedicated now to the dear memory of a fine translation teacher and translation critic Gunilla Anderson) – Christiane Nord: Text function and meaning in Skopos-oriented translation – Anthony Pym: Discursive persons and the limits of translation – Mary Snell-Hornby: Word against text. Lexical semantics and translation theory (Revisited) – Sonja Tirkkonen-Condit: Prototype definition of translation revisited – Gideon Toury: What’s the problem with ‘translation problem’? – Christiane Fellbaum: Translating with a semantic net: Matching words and concepts – Ernst-August Gutt: Relevance: A key to quality assessment in translation – Mildred Larson: Translating secondary functions of grammatical structure – Adrienne Lehrer: Problems in the translation of creative neologisms – Albrecht Neubert: Translation contextualised. How electronic text worlds are revolutionising the context of translation – Eugene Nida: Future trends in the Bible translating – Rita Temmerman: Why special language translators need insight into the mechanisms of metaphorical models and figurative denominations – Marcel Thelen: Translating figurative language revisited: Towards a framework for the interpretation of the image behind figurative language as a first step in the translation process – Anna Bednarczyk: Intersemiotic dominant of translation – Łukasz Bogucki: The demise of voice-over? Audiovisual translation in Poland in the 21 st century – Mona Baker: Linguistics and the training of translators and interpreters – Belinda Maia: The role of translation theory in the teaching of general and non-literary translation – revisited.ÿ

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Section 3: Translation analysis and assessment

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What’s the problem with ‘translation problem’? 253 Section 3 TRANSLATION ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT Gideon Toury 254 Christiane Fellbaum TRANSLATING WITH A SEMANTIC NET: MATCHING WORDS AND CONCEPTS Abstract: We describe the structure of an electronic lexical resource that has been created in many diverse languages as well as its relation to language-independent conceptual ontologies. We discuss its potential and its limitations for both automatic and manual translation. Keywords: concepts, Interlingual Inedex (ILI), Natural Language Processing (NLP), Machine Translation (MT), ontology, Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO), (Euro)WordNet. 1. Introduction The present chapter is a reincarnation of my 1992 contribution to the Proceedings of the Lodz Colloquium on Translation and Meaning (Fellbaum 1992). The paper described a lexical database, WordNet, that was being developed at Princeton and whose organization was based on principles of human semantic memory. I tried to envision how WordNets could be built for other languages and linked to the English one. The hypothesis was that such combined resources would be valuable tools and reliable identification of matching words and concepts across languages. In the fifteen years that have elapsed, WordNet has grown into a very large lexical resource that is widely used for many Natural Language Processing applications (Miller 1995, Fellbaum 1998). Its design has not fundamentally changed, but it has undergone many enhancements. Importantly, it still identifies word-concept mappings in terms of semantic and lexical relations to one another. In the mid-nineties, WordNets began to be built in other languages; presently some sixty languages have developed...

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