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Citizen Relationship Management

A Study of CRM in Government

Series:

Alexander Schellong

This study explores Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in government. Based on an interdisciplinary literature review and multiple-case study design, a model of Citizen Relationship Management (CiRM) is developed and discussed. The case studies explore the perceptions of CRM/CiRM by administrators, elected officials and consultants as well as its implementation and impact on the municipal level and in a multijurisdictional environment in the United States. Although the explorative part of the study focuses broadly on a theoretical conceptualization of CiRM, the immediate empirical referent of research are the 311 initiatives in the City of Baltimore, the City of Chicago, the City of New York and Miami-Dade County. Thus, the results help administrators and researchers to convey the idea and challenges of 311 well. The study shows that CRM is to a certain extent only partly able to make novel contributions to currently active reform movements in government. In addition, the study’s findings support the idea that CiRM provides the means to a different kind of public participation.

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List of Figures XV

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XV List of Figures Figure 2-1: Model of antecedents of customer satisfaction (adapted from Szymanski/Henard 2001) .......................................................................... 13 Figure 2-2: Relationship development phases adapted from (Andersen 2001).......................................................................................................... 16 Figure 2-3: Creating customer-centered processes....................................................... 19 Figure 2-4: Overview of 311 initiatives in the U.S. and Canada.................................. 24 Figure 2-5: Levels and aim of administrative reforms since the 1980s (adapted from Budäus 2002) ..................................................................... 26 Figure 2-6: A theory of TQM (Anderson/Rungtusanatha/Schroeder 1994)/ ............... 32 Figure 2-7: A typology of digital government.............................................................. 40 Figure 2-8: Magical pentagon of organizational goals ................................................. 45 Figure 2-9: Revised Technology Enactment Framework (Fountain 2004).................. 46 Figure 2-10: The social contract - from the orthodox era to the market-based reform era .................................................................................................. 51 Figure 2-11: Dimensions of public participation in the democracy cube (Fung 2006: 71) ......................................................................................... 64 Figure 3-1: Research Design......................................................................................... 67 Figure 3-2: Case study design and data collection ....................................................... 70 Figure 3-3: Summary of analysis process..................................................................... 76 Figure 4-1: Screenshot of the Motorola CSR application ............................................ 87 Figure 4-2: Screenshot of the Siebel application.......................................................... 95 Figure 4-3: Call Volume Development (2003-2007) ................................................... 97 Figure 4-4: NYC’s 311 inquiries (Dec 03 – July 07) ................................................... 99 Figure 4-5: Monthly call volume development Dec 2004 to Feb 2007 (total/ linear average trend) ................................................................................ 109 Figure 4-6: Screenshot of ServiceStat ........................................................................ 111 Figure 5-1: Screenshot of the People's 311................................................................. 131 Figure 5-2: Dimensions of public participation in CiRM........................................... 142

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