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Citizen Relationship Management

A Study of CRM in Government

Series:

Alexander Schellong

This study explores Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in government. Based on an interdisciplinary literature review and multiple-case study design, a model of Citizen Relationship Management (CiRM) is developed and discussed. The case studies explore the perceptions of CRM/CiRM by administrators, elected officials and consultants as well as its implementation and impact on the municipal level and in a multijurisdictional environment in the United States. Although the explorative part of the study focuses broadly on a theoretical conceptualization of CiRM, the immediate empirical referent of research are the 311 initiatives in the City of Baltimore, the City of Chicago, the City of New York and Miami-Dade County. Thus, the results help administrators and researchers to convey the idea and challenges of 311 well. The study shows that CRM is to a certain extent only partly able to make novel contributions to currently active reform movements in government. In addition, the study’s findings support the idea that CiRM provides the means to a different kind of public participation.

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List of Tables XVII

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XVII List of Tables Table 2-1: Dominant perspectives on CRM (Zablah/Bellenger/Johnston (2004): 47) ................................................................................................... 12 Table 2-2: Common attributes of services and products expected by customers ..................................................................................................... 18 Table 2-3: Channels and interaction characteristics ..................................................... 19 Table 2-4: Overview of CiRM literature ...................................................................... 25 Table 2-5: Comparing old public administration and NPM (Denhart/Denhart 2003: 28-29) ................................................................... 29 Table 2-6: TQM – Principles, Practices and Methods (Dean/Bowen 1994: 395) .............................................................................................................. 33 Table 2-7: The 12 components of TQM (Powell 1995) ............................................... 35 Table 2-8: eGovernment and eBusiness relationships.................................................. 41 Table 2-9: Citizen and administrator roles in public administration models (Roberts 2004: 328) ..................................................................................... 53 Table 3-1: Case study time frame and activity overview ............................................. 71 Table 3-2: Number of interviews per city and interviewee category ........................... 72 Table 4-1: Gartner’s evaluation of government CRM software solution vendors......................................................................................................... 94 Table 5-2: The 311 citizen contact matrix .................................................................. 126 Table 5-4: A model of CiRM...................................................................................... 136 Table 6-1: City of Baltimore – Available online service requests ............................. 173

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