A Study of CRM in Government
2 From Customer Relationship Management towards citizen-oriented government 9
9 2 From Customer Relationship Management towards citizen-oriented government Before embarking on a study of CiRM, it is important to review three areas of the lit- erature. Each of these areas gives us a sense of what has been done to improve the citi- zen-orientation of government, how CiRM can be conceptualized and what its poten- tial to affect society and polity might be. First, I explore CRM within the business management literature in Section 2.1. Second, I present an overview of different ad- ministrative reform approaches such as New Public Management (NPM) and eGov- ernment, which in one way or another are aimed at improving the citizen–government relationship (Section 2.2). Third, I present a brief summary of research on the relation- ship between citizens and public administration (Section 2.3). Moreover, I review the discourse on the role of the citizen in the state, in particular calling the citizen a “cus- tomer” of public administration. A summary of the literature review is given in Sec- tion 2.4. 2.1 Customer Relationship Management In general, an enterprise aims to win, retain and increase a customer’s revenue, once you strip away all other activities of a firm. This is true for nonprofits as well as for-profits, for public as well as private enterprise (Bergeron 2002; Peppers/Rogers 2004: 5). These enterprises are usually structured and managed around the products and services they provide (Homburg 2003). While the 1980s was characterized by the recognition that an external focus on customers was important, businesses in...
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