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Art in Motion II

Motor Skills, Motivation, and Musical Practice

Edited By Adina Mornell

Musicians, dancers and athletes spend a tremendous amount of time and effort preparing for performance in the hope of success, aiming for certainty, flexibility and expressiveness. Their use of visualization, verbal labels, muscle energy, and emotion is often based upon intuition instead of knowledge. Art in Motion intends to fill this vacuum. Effective training and teaching hinge on motivation, self-regulation, useful feedback, and an understanding of perception, cognition, timing, motor skill learning, and automation. Information about empirical research concerning mental representations of movement and musical goals can drive the creative process, facilitating the artist at work. Innovative and intentional – purposeful and meaningful – techniques of practice are developed.


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Principles of Practice for Learning Motor Skills: Some Implications for Practice and Instruction in Music (Richard A. Schmidt & Timothy D. Lee)


Principles of Practice for Learning Motor Skills: Some Implications for Practice and Instruction in Music This book’s goal is similar to that of the first book, based upon the origi- nal Art in Motion symposium held in Graz, Austria in 2008 (see Mornell, 2009) – the integration of (a) laboratory research in motor behavior and motor learning and (b) the field of music instruction and performance. It differs, however, by representing a subsequent step (beyond the 2009 book) in the development of these ideas. In this chapter, we have tried to apply some of the fundamental principles of motor learning – established in the research laboratories in kinesiology, physical education, experi- mental psychology, human factors/ergonomics, and related fields – to problems in high-level music instruction. These motor-learning experi- ments were done using mainly (unskilled) university undergraduates and artificial laboratory (non-musically-oriented) tasks. So, the ques- tion arises about the extent to which these principles could be applied to other real-world activities (e.g., high-level sports, music, and dance; speech-, occupational-, and physical-therapy, etc.) – high-level music included. We are not aware of any other attempts to integrate these two fields; so, hopefully, the present efforts to extend the outcomes of the 2008 Graz symposium will motivate others to continue in this direction. But, first, there are some major issues that must be addressed before we can be confident in applying laboratory-based motor-learning principles to instruction in high-level music. Applying motor-learning research to music performance First, we have the problem of measurement. Dr. Adina Mornell, our Sym-...

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