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Systematic Musicology: Empirical and Theoretical Studies

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Edited By Albrecht Schneider and Arne von Ruschkowski

This volume contains articles most of which present empirical studies in the field of systematic musicology. Contributions in particular deal with aspects of melody including modeling and computer-assisted analysis as well as with various issues in sound and music perception, musical acoustics and psychoacoustics. Topics range from loudness perception in ‘Techno’ music to sound radiation in classical singing styles, and from timbre research to wave field synthesis and room acoustics. One focus of this volume is on pop and rock music, another is on ethno and folk music. In addition to empirical investigations, theoretical and methodological issues are addressed including some fundamental concepts in ethnomusicology and folk music scholarship.

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Orie Takada: Sound Radiation Patterns in Classical Singing Styles

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163 Orie Takada Sound Radiation Patterns in Classical Singing Styles Summary Most musical instruments exhibit complex patterns of sound radiation, which change with direction, pitches played and other factors. The same holds true for the body of a singer (regarded as an instrument) singing with her or his voice but activating also parts of the chest, face, etc. A topic addressed in this paper is whether there are differences between ‚classical’ and other styles of singing in regard to sound production and sound radiation. Changing patterns of sound radiation relating to ‘chest voice’ and ‘head voice’ as well as to ‘Belcanto’ and the so-called ‘German singing-technique’ were investigated with a microphone array comprising 128 microphones. The intonation of three tones (B3, B4, F5) shows that radiation patterns of the female singing voice depend on the vocal technique and the type of the vocalization employed, and on the pitch of the tone that is sung. 1. Introduction In the available literature singing is analyzed from both a theoretical and practical point of view. For example, such books may discuss acoustical, physiological and phonatory aspects of singing (e.g., Sundberg 1987/1997). Very few studies as yet are directed to cognitive issues involved in singing though this is also an important field that needs to be studied. Further, motor control as related to cognition is of interest since any singer must learn in lessons and through exercises to control and coordinate those parts of the body relevant to sound production in singing. This implies...

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