IV. Managing urban transportation
4.1 Strategies to improve urban transportation Commonly observed elements of an urban transport strategy include reduction of car use, improvement in public transport, improvement in the performance of other modes, improvements in the performance of the road network,; and im- provement in the performance of vehicles (Nakamura et al., 2004). Reducing the need to travel. Demands on the transport system can be reduced by enabling people to make fewer journeys, or shorter ones, or both. While re- ducing the number of journeys may reduce economic and social activity, some journeys can be replaced by telecommunication, as an alternative to travel. Reducing car use. Car use ensures greater pollution, noise, congestion and accidents per person-km than other modes of transport. Reduction of car use should lead to a reduction in overall traffic levels, and hence to improvements in efficiency, the environment, liveable streets and, if the alternative modes are not significantly less safe, will improve safety. Improving public transport. Improvements in the coverage and quality of public transport may provide the alternative to car use which enables it to be reduced. Equally, it can provide an enhanced form of transport for those who do not have cars available. Improving other modes. The same argument holds for walking and cycling, which are the two modes which are available to everyone who does not have a mobility handicap. They also have the advantage of being non-polluting and consuming no energy. Each is limited in its range, but a large proportion of car journeys...
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