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Meaning and Translation

Part 1: Meaning

Series:

Tomasz P. Krzeszowski

Since translation cannot be approached in isolation from meaning, anything that is said about translation must necessarily be placed in the context of meaning. Accordingly, the first volume of the book concerns this necessary context, while the second volume will view translation in terms of the semantic framework presented in the first volume. Both volumes are to a large extent consistent with major tenets of cognitive linguistics. The work is addressed primarily to students pursuing translation studies but also to all those persons who are interested in semantics and translation for whatever other reasons. The main aim of the book is to provide the prospective reader with a quantum of knowledge in the two areas. A subsidiary aim is to tidy up the metalinguistic terminology, replete with such deficiencies as polysemy, whereby one term is laden with a number of senses, as well as synonymy, due to which one sense is connected with more than one term.

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CONTENTS

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Notation and typographical conventions ...................................................... 11 Acknowledgments ........................................................................................... 13 Introduction .................................................................................................... 15 Chapter One: Delimiting the scope and coping with metalanguage ..... 17 1. Meaning, semiotics, and signs: preliminary description ................ 17 2. Semantics: its scope and its metalanguage ..................................... 18 3. The terminological principle and the cognitive approach to object language ........................................................................... 22 3.1. The terminological principle defined ...................................... 22 3.2. Alternative construals of domains of experience .................... 23 3.2.1. Profile and base ............................................................. 23 3.2.2. Level of specificity ....................................................... 26 3.2.3. Scale and scope of predication ..................................... 26 3.2.4. Relative salience of substructures (trajector and landmark) ............................................... 28 3.2.5. Background assumptions and expectations .................. 31 3.2.6. Perspective (orientation, vantage point, directionality, subjectivity) ................................................................. 32 3.3. Conceptualizing the object language ....................................... 34 4. Implementing the terminological principle – theoretical preliminaries ................................................................. 35 4.1. Three specific postulates ......................................................... 35 4.2. Causes of the terminological chaos ......................................... 36 4.3. Fundamental commitments and terms ..................................... 36 4.4. The ontological triad ............................................................... 38 4.5. Notation ................................................................................... 38 4.6. Two further philosophical commitments ................................. 40 4.7. The communication sequence ................................................. 40 4.8. Interfaces between neural and mental (conceptual) structures ................................................................................. 43 4.9. Some ontological controversies ............................................... 45 4.10. Evidence from neurology? .................................................... 48 4.11. The Great Chain of Being ...................................................... 58 4.12. Cognitive approach to empirical sciences ............................. 61 Contents 6 4.13. Why is linguistics overlooked? ............................................. 63 4.14. A few more remarks about language ..................................... 65 4.15. Primary linguistic data ........................................................... 67 5. Implementing the terminological principle – applications ............. 68 5.1. Regimentation and its limitations ............................................ 68 5.2. Semantic metalanguages as different representations ............. 69 5.3. Definitions of basic metaterms ................................................ 70 5.3.1. Designation ................................................................... 70 5.3.2. Extension ...................................................................... 71 5.3.3. Intension (sense) ........................................................... 72 5.3.4. Signification .................................................................. 72 5.3.5. Reference ...................................................................... 75 5.3.6. Denotation...

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