Prior to uttering a sentence, the speaker needs to plan it. The planning process is highly complex and consists of at least two tasks, a cognitive- linguistic task and a motor task. The cognitive-linguistic task involves the conceptualization of meaning (What to say?), the framing of mean- ing within the rules of a given language (Which syntax? Which words? Which prosody?), and the selection of phonological units (phonemes, syllables...). The motor task involves planning the spatial and temporal coordination of the speech articulators. Controlling these articulators is complex and is like controlling an orchestra of muscle activations over time, because the resulting movements have to be accurate in space and time to convey linguistic meaning. One of the most inﬂuential psycholinguistic models of language pro- duction was proposed by Levelt and colleagues (Levelt, 1989; Levelt et al., 1999). This model describes the cognitive-linguistic components of speech planning in hierarchical layers going from intention to articula- tion. One weakness of Levelt’s model is that it fails to address the impact of the requirements of the motor control system on cognitive-linguistic planning. Smith and Goffman (2004) and Smith (2006) have provided evidence that there are bottom-up inﬂuences from the dynamics of the motor control system to the cognitive-linguistic system. This debate is not the primary focus of the book, but it is relevant to certain chapters. The aim of this book is to provide the reader with the latest research in speech planning, from both a cognitive-linguistic and a motor...
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