Producing spoken sentences: The scope of incremental planning
LINDA WHEELDON Abstract: The production of spoken sentences involves the generation of a number of levels of representation: a conceptual representation for the message we wish to con- vey, a grammatical representation that determines an appropriate word order for that message, and phonological and phonetic representations to guide articulation. In nor- mal speech, these representations can be generated and articulated at rates of several words per second. To account for such processing speed, models of sentence produc- tion propose that speech is planned incrementally, so that the articulation of early parts of an utterance occurs in parallel with the planning of upcoming segments. However, exactly how processing at different levels is co-ordinated remains a matter of dispute. In particular, there is disagreement about how much of an utterance must be generated at a particular level of representation before processing at the next level can begin. The focus of this paper is on the timing of early conceptual and grammatical encoding pro- cesses. A series of experiments is reviewed, which used reaction-time methodologies to investigate the production of sentences in English and Japanese. The aim of the ex- periments was to determine the scope of advanced planning prior to sentence onset and to investigate the relationship between conceptual and grammatical processes. 1 Introduction In order to produce sentences we must translate some non-linguistic idea into an articulated utterance. All models of speech production pos- tulate that this translation process occurs in a number of successive steps (Bock and Levelt, 1994; Garrett,...
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