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Educational and Technological Approaches to Renewable Energy

Edited By Walter Leal Filho and Julia Gottwald

This book documents and disseminates a number of educational and technological approaches to renewable energy, with a special emphasis on European and Latin American experiences, but also presenting experiences from other parts of the world. It was prepared as part of the project JELARE (Joint European-Latin American Universities Renewable Energy Project), undertaken as part of the ALFA III Programme of the European Commission involving countries in Latin America (e.g. Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala) as well as in Europe (Germany and Latvia). Thanks to its approach and structure, this book will prove useful to all those dedicated to the development of the renewable energy sector, especially those concerned with the problems posed by lack of expertise and lack of training in this field.

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Energy Recovery from Biodegradable Waste in the Grain Processing Industry

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J.K. Staniškis, I. Kliopova, V. Petraškien1 Abstract The management of biodegradable (BD) waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain processing industry. BD waste enters the production process with unprocessed raw materials; it is generated in every stage of grain processing until raw material becomes commodity. BD waste from grain processing is considered to be non-hazardous waste and is classified in category 02 03 of the European waste catalogue. This paper is focused on analysis of the possibility of using BD waste for the production of solid recovery fuel. Cleaner production audits have suggested two significant aspects: (1) the generation of biodegradable waste in grain processing can be up to 18.3 kg/t of product; (2) energy consumption can be up to 108.3 kWh/t of product. Theoretical and experimental investigations in a pilot grain process- ing company have proved that the use of biodegradable waste for the production of alternative fuel in addition to energy would reduce the amount of BD waste by up to 4.48 kg/t of product. The mass and energy balances of the processes mentioned above, plus envi- ronmental and economical benefits, are presented and discussed in the paper. I. Introduction Grain processors have been obliged to seek alternative methods to improve envi- ronmental performance as a result of rising energy prices, waste management costs, fees for natural resources, fines for pollution and the ‘polluter pays’ prin- ciple outlined in the Environmental Law of the Republic of Lithuania. Up to now, some...

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