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Anti-Judaism on the Way from Judaism to Christianity


Peter Landesmann

The differing beliefs that emerged between Christianity and Judaism, especially in the first two centuries AD, were mainly caused by the introduction of heavenly beings in the Jewish religion. This resulted in the predominance of a messiah, who will be sent by God as salvator mundi. Mainly Paul preached and practiced the conversion of pagans to Christianity, without obligating them to practice the Jewish law. In the course of time the baptized pagans represented the mainstream of Christianity which caused a conflict between them and those Jews who practiced the Jewish law but also believed in Jesus as the Messiah. The development of these tendencies is described in this book.


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30. Is Christianity the true Israel?


In Christian doctrine, statements from the Hebrew Bible were interpreted in re- lation to the New Testament. As such, Christians believed that Judaism had lost its the theological foundation since the Hebrew Bible no longer possessed any value of its own. It was seen only as a "promise" that found its "fulfillment" in the New Testament. The interpretation of the statements in the Hebrew Bible relative to the New Testament was known as "typology", and church scholars outdid each other in finding such typologies. Typology formed a link between the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament and was seen as proof that Christianity embodied "true Ju- daism". This was also highlighted by the term "Late Judaism" used for Judaism, for whose existence there was no theological justification since the Hebrew Bible is only comprehensible and valid from the perspective of the New Testament. The Hebrew Bible was seen to only bear witness to the rightness of the Christian teachings. The Christians placed all the more value on this witness because it came from their adversaries, the Jews. Paul already makes use of such typologies, for example in Gal 4:22-25: "For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by a slave woman and the other by a free woman. One, the child of the slave, was born according to the flesh; the other, the child of the free woman, was born through the promise. Now this is an allegory: these women are two covenants. One woman, in fact,...

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