Variation in Norm
8 The progressive German system
The vocalic segments of the progressive system all differ in terms of phonetic quality. As in the English standard systems, quantity is a secondary parameter, derivable from the phonotactic dichotomy [±free]. Figure V portrays this system and includes an illustration of significant lexical incidences. In the literature a system along these lines seems to have been first proposed by Moulton (1962a); it was staunchly defended by Eisenberg (1994), and is currently propagated by Maas (22006), Neef (2005) and others. i y u ɪ ʏ ʊ e ø ə o ɛ œ ↖ɔʏ ɔ ↖aɪ ([ɐ]) ɑʊ↗ a ɑ e Zeh, stehlen, Seele, sehen, Heer, Ehre; zäh, spät, Käse, stählen, Säle, säen, Bär, Ähre a (= [a̝ ]) satt, alt, Masse, starr, warten ɑ (= [ɑ̟ ]ː) nah, Saat, rasen, waten, Star, Schar Figure V: The vowels and true diphthongs of the progressive German system and illustration of significant lexical incidences Since the system lacks the long open e-phoneme [ɛ ]ː, it includes only fifteen distinctive monophthongal segments instead of the sixteen monophthongs of the conservative system. The qualitative disparity of the avowels structurally imparts an abstract quadrangular shape on the whole sound model; it contrasts with the triangular conservative German system and in this respect coincides with the standard English vowel systems. Four properties commonly combine to characterize the progressive standard: (a) its speakers lack the phoneme /ɛː/, whose lexical incidences are in their speech subsumed under those of the free vowel /e/, so that word pairs like Zehzäh, stehlen-stählen, Seele-Säle, and Ehre-Ähre are homophones;54...
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