In Memory of Michael Clyne- In Collaboration with Catrin Norrby, Leo Kretzenbacher, Carla Amorós
Edited By Rudolf Muhr
Domergue SUMIEN: Harmonizing non-dominant standards throughout four states
In: Rudolf Muhr (ed.) (2012): Non-dominant Varieties of pluricentric Languages. Getting the Picture. In memory of Michael Clyne. Wien et. al., Peter Lang Verlag. p. 263-282. Domergue SUMIEN Aix-en-Provence, Occitania (France) email@example.com Occitan: Harmonizing non-dominant standards throughout four states Abstract Occitan is split into four states: France (“Midi”), Italy (Occitan Valleys), Spain (Aran Valley) and Monaco. Due to pressures from French, Spanish, and Italian, language attrition has been strong. Recent advances in status planning have compensated little: Occitan has been official in Spain since 1990 and protected in Italy since 1999. Corpus planning has made Occitan quite a modern language in the expression of contemporaneous life. However, Standard Occitan is not complete yet. The current issue is: how to connect local Occitan varieties of Spain and Italy with the ongoing standardization in France? Authorities of Aran Valley have been considering this question since 2009. There seems to be a need to build a harmonized, pluricentric Standard Occitan, including the pre-existing regional koines and the recently promoted varieties of Spain and Italy. 1. Introduction Occitan, also called Lenga d’Òc1 or Provençal2 (native names: occitan, lenga d’òc, provençal/provençau) is a Romance language located in the heart of the Romance language countries. The territory where Occitan is spoken is called Occitania (in Occitan: Occitània) and currently spreads over four states. This implies four differing configurations of the language conflict and differing 1 In English use, since we deal with exotic, non-adapted forms, the autochthonous name Lenga...
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