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Rivoluzione copernicano-newtoniana e sentimento in Kant

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Piero Giordanetti

Il volume analizza il rapporto fra la scoperta di sentimenti e affetti a priori e la rivoluzione nel modo di pensare annunciata nella «Prefazione» alla seconda edizione della Critica della ragion pura. Il lavoro mostra che il passaggio dall’ipotesi alla certezza apodittica, da Niccolò Copernico a Isaac Newton tanto nella filosofia speculativa quanto nella filosofia morale è inscindibilmente connesso con la scoperta dei sentimenti a priori del rispetto, della soddisfazione di sé, dell’interesse, della tensione, dell’esigenza e della tendenza, a loro volta strettamente legati a temi come il primato della ragione pura pratica, la fede razionale e l’educazione al sublime morale. Il libro esamina l’importanza di John Milton, Michel de Montaigne, Emanuel Swedenborg e Virgilio per la riflessione kantiana.

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This volume, developing research on a theme that has been addressed very little, deals with the relation between the discovery of a priori feelings and emotions in Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason and the «Preface» to the second edition of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason in which he announces a revolution in the way of thinking. In Chapter One, I treat some aspects of the relation between the role of feel- ings and the Newtonian model in some of Kant’s pre-critical writings. Chapter II will analyze the moral theory of the Critique of Pure Reason in order to show that in this work moral feeling is always conceived of as an a posteriori and em- pirical element. Chapter Three is devoted to the examination of the concept of a revolution in Kant’s way of thinking and of its relationship to the Newtonian model in the first Critique. Although the term ‘Copernican turn’ [kopernikanische Wende] is usually used, it will be shown that this expression emphasizes only one aspect of the change that Kant achieves. While both Kepler and Newton have given apo- dictic certainty to the hypothetical thoughts of Copernicus, Kant will transform the hypothesis proposed in the first Critique into apodictic certainty. The only possibility for demonstrating the transcendental and hypothetical ideals of free- dom, God and immortality rests, for Kant, with the objective reality of moral consciousness. Hence, Kant will become the Newton of the thing in themselves. In Chapter Four, I address the theme of feelings and...

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