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Between the Old and the New World

Studies in the History of Overseas Migrations

Series:

Agnieszka Malek and Dorota Praszalowicz

The volume contains papers presented at the fourth Workshop «American Ethnicity: Rethinking Old Issues, Asking New Questions» which took place in Krakow, Poland, on May 24 th-25 th, 2010. The event was organized by the Institute of American Studies and Polish Diaspora of the Jagiellonian University, and supported by the (American) Immigration and Ethnic History Society. The tradition of organizing bi-annual workshops goes back to 2004 and continues to be a forum for discussing ongoing research and sharing ideas. The texts included in this volume provide a comparative context to immigration studies, contribute to the gender perspective, bring up new issues and remind the most important aspects of migrants’ life, such as remittances and poverty. There is also a set of the articles on American Jewish experience, studied from a variety of angles, and the Polish-American section presenting texts on local immigrant communities.

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Tobias Brinkmann: From Oświęcim to Ellis Island: Jewish and Other Transmigrants and the Evolution of Border Controls Along Germany’s Eastern Border, 1885-1914

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From Oświęcim to Ellis Island: Jewish and Other Transmigrants and the Evolution of Border Controls Along Germany’s Eastern Border, 1885-1914 Tobias Brinkmann (Penn State University) Since the establishment of migration studies as a (loosely organized) field in the 1960s historians and social scientists covering the period after 1800 have pre- dominantly concentrated on processes of immigration or emigration. In the United States and to a lesser extent in Britain, Australia, France and other coun- tries, which experienced significant immigration in the last two hundred years, scholars examine primarily arrival, community building, and adaptation pro- cesses, frequently of a specific group at a specific place. Another closely studied subject is the immigration policy of a specific state. The concentration on arrival and immigration policy is hardly surprising. After 1800 the emerging nation state defined the terms of inclusion and exclusion, of belonging, and access – for its citizens and non-citizens. Immigration has an obvious relevance because of the impact new arrivals made (or are making) on host societies, and the sources are concentrated at the point of arrival and thus relatively easy to retrieve. In contrast, retracing the routes taken by migrants through several countries and determining the causes of migration for larger groups can be challenging. Not all states have kept records on emigrants, let alone transmigrants. In fact, many subjects of the Russian Empire left illegally because it was often difficult and costly to obtain the officially required paperwork.1 In the American context, authors tend to concentrate on...

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