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Computer Networks, the Internet and Next Generation Networks

A Protocol-based and Architecture-based Perspective


Thi-Thanh-Mai Hoang

Most computer network books are described based on a top-down or button-up layer-based perspective – allowing readers to learn about concepts and protocols in one layer as a part of a complex system. At each layer, the books illustrated the mechanisms and protocols provided at this layer to its upper layer. Unlike other computer network books, this book additionally provides protocol-based and architecture-based perspective to study the computer networks, the Internet and Next Generation Networks. The book starts with a short introduction to the computer network and their design – covering the basic reference models, the multimedia networking, Next Generation Networking and Mobile Networking as well as network planning considerations. Fundamental techniques are described – covering mechanisms, protocols, architectures and services to control the traffic and ensure the QoS for data and multimedia applications. For each technique, the author formulates the problem statement and illustrates complete solution – including basic idea, concept, architecture, protocol behaviour, their advantages and disadvantages.


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3. Traffic Management and Quality of ServiceControl


3. Traffic Management and Quality of Service Control Protocols are needed for controlling the sending and receiving of messages within the Internet. A protocol may consist of one or several protocol mechanisms. Each of these protocol mechanisms is a method describing a complex sub-function of a protocol. It can be implemented in various communication systems, in different layers and in several protocols. For example, The Internet checksum is a protocol mechanism implemented in TCP, UDP, IP, OSPF, Ethernet, etc. and in different layers of the TCP/IP protocol stacks. In order to develop a new protocol or architecture, it is significantly to have an overview of fundamental protocols and mechanisms. The fundamental mechanisms for traffic management and QoS control will be described in this chapter. Figure 3-1: Basic scenario for data communication over the Internet Supposed that the computer A and B are directly connected via a computer network and will exchange data through this network (figure 3-1). During the data transmission between A and B, transmission errors such as delay, loss, duplication and out-of-date of messages may occur. In order to eliminate these errors, a lot of questions must be answered, for examples:  What is the reason for the errors? How should these errors be recognized and recovered? The answer of these questions deals with the protocol mechanisms for error detection and correction.  How should senders, receivers and intermediate routers react to overload situations so that the packet losses will be minimal? The solutions for this question deal with the...

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