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Computer Networks, the Internet and Next Generation Networks

A Protocol-based and Architecture-based Perspective

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Thi-Thanh-Mai Hoang

Most computer network books are described based on a top-down or button-up layer-based perspective – allowing readers to learn about concepts and protocols in one layer as a part of a complex system. At each layer, the books illustrated the mechanisms and protocols provided at this layer to its upper layer. Unlike other computer network books, this book additionally provides protocol-based and architecture-based perspective to study the computer networks, the Internet and Next Generation Networks. The book starts with a short introduction to the computer network and their design – covering the basic reference models, the multimedia networking, Next Generation Networking and Mobile Networking as well as network planning considerations. Fundamental techniques are described – covering mechanisms, protocols, architectures and services to control the traffic and ensure the QoS for data and multimedia applications. For each technique, the author formulates the problem statement and illustrates complete solution – including basic idea, concept, architecture, protocol behaviour, their advantages and disadvantages.

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4. Internet Protocol Suite

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So far we had presented the mechanisms for traffic management and QoS control in telecommunication networks and in the Internet without considering of the layered network architecture of the communication systems. From our point of view, each of these mechanisms may be used in different protocols, in the several layers and in different communication systems. Based on the basic of these mechanisms, in this chapter, an architecture overview of the Internet and several selected protocols in each layer of TCP/IP protocol suite will be illustrated. The main goal is to introduce you how you can design and develop protocols on the basic of existing mechanisms described in chapter 3. 4.1 Introduction The Internet protocol stack is specified in five layers of the TCP/IP reference model – the physical, data link, network, transport and application. Each layer can be implemented in hardware or in software that cover its own protocols that solve a set of problems involving the data transmission and providing services to the upper layer protocol instance. Figure 4-1: the Internet protocol stack and the Protocol data Unit Instead of using the terminology n-PDU of the OSI reference model, special names for PDUs in the Internet protocol stack are determined: message, segment, datagram, frame and 1-PDU. Each PDU has two parts: header and payload. The header contains the information used for treating the PDU at this layer. The payload holds the user data and the header of the upper layers. The Internet protocols stack und the PDU names are illustrated...

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