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Cultural Difference in Television Programs

Foreign Television Programs in China

Zhuo Feng

What kinds of foreign television programs are broadcast in China? What types of cultural differences exist in the minds of Chinese television viewers? To what extent can they perceive and accept these differences? The author developed a three-stage empirical approach to examine these questions in five sample cities in China. First, the television schedules of 37 television channels were analyzed in order to determine the type, cultural modification, and export country of foreign programs. Second, based on 36 audience interviews 42 cultural dimensions were explored and summarized in a catalogue. Third, a survey was conducted among 450 viewers, which examined their perception and acceptance of cultural difference. Five viewer types were developed through cluster analysis. The impact of influential factors was examined.

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Table 1: Hofstede’s Five Cultural-Difference Dimensions ................................ 29  Table 2: Kluckhohn’s Basic Cultural Orientations Dimensions ......................... 30  Table 3: Parsons’ Cultural Pattern Variables ...................................................... 32  Table 4: Core Cultural Values ............................................................................. 33  Table 5: Sample Television Broadcasters and Channels in Five Cities ............ 109  Table 6: Sample Days in March 2009 ............................................................... 110  Table 7: Provision of Foreign Television Programs in Five Cities .................. 117  Table 8: Summary of Cultural Modification ..................................................... 121  Table 9: Cultural Proximity of Exporting Countries ........................................ 123  Table 10: Date of Interview Conduction ........................................................... 128  Table 11: Sample Description ........................................................................... 129  Table 12: Openness vs. Conservatism as a Cultural Boundary ........................ 132  Table 13: Catalogue of Cultural-Difference Dimensions ................................. 167  Table 14: Types of Chinese Television Viewers .............................................. 173  Table 15: Ranking of Fives Sample Cities ........................................................ 190  Table 16: Date of Survey Conduction ............................................................... 192  Table 17: Sample Allocation in Five Sample Cities ......................................... 193  Table 18: Population Allocation in China in 2010 ........................................... 193  Table 19: Types of Foreign Movies .................................................................. 196  Table 20: Types of Other Television Genres .................................................... 199  Table 21: Levels of Perception and Acceptance Indices .................................. 212  Table 22: Perception/Acceptance Index, and Distance (Main-Catalogue) ....... 213  Table 23: Perception/Acceptance Index, and Distance (Sub-Catalogue) ......... 217  Table 24: Cluster Description ........................................................................... 225  Table 25: Sample Distribution in five Clusters ................................................. 226  Table 26: Cluster Description of Genre-Related Cultural Difference .............. 232  Table 27: Cluster Description of Genre-Unrelated Cultural Difference ........... 235  Table 28: Hierarchical Regression Explaining Perception/Acceptance Index . 240  Table 29: Correlation Matrix for Influential Factors ........................................ 242  Table 30: Gender as an Influential Factor ......................................................... 244  Table 31: Age as an Influential Factor .............................................................. 245  Table 32: Education as...

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