Lessons from the U.S. and Germany
Table 1 Typology of regimes of production Type Production Model Work/ Human Resource Labor Relations State bureaucratic Integrated Med to high tech Brand name Stable after restructuring Urban workers High wages Low base, allowances Stable TU, party, gov rules Collective contract Weak collective bargaining Few labor conflicts Corporate bureaucratic Integrated High tech Strong brand Market control Stable employment Urban workers, skilled High wages, benefits High base pay Career incentives TU, cooperative Mostly collective contract Weak collective bargaining Labor conflicts, few collective, often individual Corporate high performance Integrated High tech Strong brand High flexibility Flexible employment Urban workers High wages, benefits Low base, high variable and OT Weak or no TU Employee involvement Often no collective contract No collective bargaining Occasional labor conflict Flexible mass production Integrated Med to high tech No brand name High flexibility Flexible employment Rural workers Neo Taylorism Low wages, benefit Very long work hours Mostly non-union No collective contracts Occasional labor conflicts, sometimes militant Violations of legal standards Low wage classic Low integration Low tech No or weak brand High flexibility Flexible employment Rural workers Low wages, benefit Personalized control Very long work hours Mostly non-union No collective contracts Frequent violations of legal standards (Source: Luethje, Luo, and Zhang, 2013. The project was supported by Hans Böckler Stiftung) 275 Table 2 Major Laws & Regulations on Collective Bargaining & Collective Contract Title Year Organization Relevant articles Trade Union Law 1992 Standing Committee, the National People's Congress Article. 18 2001 (amended) Standing Committee, the National People's Congress Article...
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