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Stasiology and Electoral Systems

Adrian Gorun

It is obvious today that the democratic political regime cannot be considered reality without taking into account political parties; it is as obvious as the phenomenon of partidocracy, expressed through the quasi-total domination of parties in politics. Such judgements prompted the title of the book Stasiology and Electoral Systems. The book itself revives the term stasiology, introduced by M. Duverger in 1951, which defines the science of political parties but has not been used very much over the last decades. Its approach is explanatory and perspective alike, emphasizing the myriad of correlations surrounding the emergence, functions, types and systems of parties, on the one hand, and the electoral systems used to elect parliaments, styles of representation and executive formation on the other.

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Chapter I: Political Parties .................................................................................... 9 1.1 General description ....................................................................................... 9 1.2 Party origins ................................................................................................ 12 1.3 The concept of the political party ............................................................... 22 1.4 Functions of political parties ....................................................................... 24 1.5 Types of parties ........................................................................................... 31 1.6 Systems of parties ....................................................................................... 41 Chapter II: Elections and Electoral Systems ....................................................... 59 2.1 Free and competitive elections .................................................................... 59 2.2 Elections to monocratic functions ............................................................... 63 2.3 Electoral systems utilized for parliament elections ....................................... 65 2.3.1 Majority systems with one ballot (plurality) .................................... 66 2.3.2 Majority electoral systems with two ballots in uninominal colleges ............................................................................................ 72 2.3.3 Proportional representation systems ................................................ 78 2.3.4 Comparative analysis: Arend Lijphart ............................................. 86 2.3.5 Conclusions. Advantages and disadvantages of proportional systems .......................................................................................... 110 Chapter III: Parliaments .................................................................................... 115 3.1 Origin of parliaments ................................................................................ 115 3.2 Structure of parliaments ............................................................................ 117 3.3 Functions of parliament ............................................................................ 133 3.4 Representation .......................................................................................... 139 3.5 Styles of representation ............................................................................. 178 Chapter IV: Governments ................................................................................. 187 4.1 Government Organization ......................................................................... 187 4.2 Types of Cabinets ..................................................................................... 193 4.2.1 Coalition Theories ......................................................................... 194 4.2.2 Governments and Policies ............................................................. 206 8 4.2.3 Government Extension .................................................................. 209 4.2.4 Forms of Government .................................................................... 212 Chapter V: Aspects of Multi-Party Systems today ........................................... 221 5.1 Partidism and Partidocracy ....................................................................... 221 5.2 Catch-All Parties ....................................................................................... 223 5.3 Considerations on the system of parties in Romania today....................... 227 Chapter VI: Knowledge Culture and the Progress of Democracy .................... 235 6.2 Formal democracy and substantial democracy ......................................... 242 6.3 Knowledge and the progress of democracy (democracy as outcome and process) .............................................................................................. 246 Abbreviations in this Work ............................................................................... 253 Bibliography ..................................................................................................... 255

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