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Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: Defining the Field and Effecting Change

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Sara Cotterall and David A. Crabbe

This book is a collection of papers that explores the notion of learner autonomy and the problem of helping language learners to manage their learning effectively. The first part of the book deals with issues of definition: what is the cognitive base for autonomous learning behaviour and how is this mediated by social and cultural expectations of a learner's role? The second part reports on experiences of working with learners and with teachers to promote learner autonomy. In working with learners, the focus is on language learning strategies and how strategic learning might be developed through strategy training, materials design, reflection and counselling. In working with teachers, the focus is on bringing about change in traditional perspectives on the roles of learners and teachers within education systems.

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Preface ............................................................................................................... lX Part 1: Defining the Field David Crabbe Introduction .................................................................................................. 3 David Little Learner autonomy is more than a Western cultural construct .................. 11 Naoko Aoki and Richard C. Smith Learner autonomy in cultural context: the case of Japan .......................... 19 Philip Riley On the social construction of 'the learner' ................................................. 29 Part II: Effecting Change Working with Groups Sara Cotterall Introduction ................................................................................................. 4 3 Steven McDonough A hierarchy of strategies? ........................................................................... 51 Andrew D. Cohen Language learning strategies instruction and research .............................. 61 v David Nunan, Jose Lai and Ken Keobke Towards autonomous language learning: strategies, reflection and navigation .................................................................................................... 69 Michael M tiller-V erweyen Reflection as a means of acquiring autonomy ........................................... 79 Leni Dam and Lienhard Legenhausen Language acquisition in an autonomous learning environment: learners' self-evaluations and external assessments compared ................. 89 Working with Individual Learners Sara Cotterall Introduction ................................................................................................. 99 Gail Schaefer Fu Guidelines for productive language counselling-tools for implementing autonomy ........................................................................... 105 Peter Voller, Elaine Martyn and Valerie Pickard One-to-one counselling for autonomous learning in a self-access centre: final report on an action learning project.. ................................... Ill vi Alison Hoffmann Discourse surrounding goals in an undergraduate ESL writing course ............................................................................................ 127 Working with Teachers David Crabbe Introduction ............................................................................................... 139 Vera Maria Xavier dos Santos and Viviane Horbach EFL teacher and class management: teaching and learning strategies ... 143 Flavia Vieira Pedagogy for autonomy: teacher development and pedagogical experimentation - an in-service teacher training project ......................... 149 Cecilia Thavenius Teacher autonomy for learner autonomy ................................................. 159 David Crabbe Postscript ................................................................................................... 165 References ............................................................................................................. 169 List of contributors .................................................................................................. 183 vii This page intentionally left blank

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