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Archetypes in Literatures and Cultures

Cultural and Regional Studies- In Collaboration with Sevinj Bakhysh and Izabella Horvath

Edited By Rahilya Geybullayeva

The formation of new countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Eastern European block necessarily brings about an increased awareness of national identity and has given rise to more urgent attempts to define national literary and cultural facts. Among the facts to be determined are the circulation of similar cultural motifs, situations, symbols, plots, genres, words, and rituals. Such a situation gives rise to questions concerning the relationship between things that were constructed over centuries and relatively new archetypal plots and situations created by different authors, developed in different periods and in national literatures. For example, how does translation influence the migration of plots? Does the blurring of borders between sources and re-interpretations make it difficult to distinguish the original and the «kidnapped» texts? The forms of archetypes have changed and continue to change, creating a hyper-text. Taking these things into consideration, the question arises: «Where are the borders between an original text, influences, and plagiarism?»

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Part 5: Archetypes in New Transformation or Fan-fiction

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Part 5 Archetypes in New Transformation or Fan-fiction 209 Dostoevsky’s Underground Man as a Literary Archetype in Postmodern Literature Hatice Övgü Tüzün (Turkey) Although it is hard to mark a definitive moment when the anti-hero came into existence as a literary type, Dostoevsky’s Underground Man is undoubtedly one of the most memorable characters in this category. “In the literary work on Notes from the Underground, the protagonist is always called Underground Man (pod- pol’nyj chelovek), as if he were an archetypal entity, rather than “the narrator,” an accepted literary convention of the Icherzihlung” (Matlaw 1958: 101). Gene- rally speaking, the term Underground Man” refers to a condition of being margi- nalized, self-effacing, and to a large extent antisocial. The defining feature of the Underground Man is his “hyperconsciousness” that results from his intelligence and sensitivity on the one hand, and his pathological dislike of action on the other. He is described as “the anti-thesis of the normal man, for example, he is a man of heightened awareness, who has, of course, emerged not from the womb of Nature but from a test-tube,” (Dostoyevsky 1972: 21). He is moreover an incurable skeptic, paralyzed by his overanalysis of everything in life. A spiteful misanthrophe, the Underground Man avoids commitment to pursue individual freedom but, ironically, often finds the burdens of freedom hard to bear. All in all, he is a man of several contradictions doomed to suffer eternally from the burdens of his consciousness. In contemporary literature, Dostoevsky’s Underground Man...

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