Chapter VII: Future oriented discourse and the theories of integration
100 Chapter VI The question of what in a new European context will make a constitutive factor for the nation to exist is a separate issue. At this point it may be enough to say that nationality and national specificity will have to be perceived quite differently than in past centuries. What is already clear, though, is that in a new European setting preservation of a nation and its distinctiveness will not depend on Westphalian sovereignty but rather on maintaining and developing national culture, which can indeed become a part of a common European cultural heritage. Chapter VII Future oriented discourse and the theories of integration Already for some time the discourse on European integration has absorbed theoretical reflection on this process. In the present chapter I attempt to answer the question of how far existing theories of European integration are useful for reflection about the future of the European Union. First, the most often cited theories like neofunctionalism, intergovernmentalism and liberal intergovern- mentalism are analysed to determine their theoretical background and assump- tions. In the following section I will try to show that the so called “theories of integration” are to a great extent just rationalizations of the historically experi- enced practice of European integration and each of them is focused on different aspects of this process. Therefore, it can be shown that their subjects are, in fact, different. I refer to my book on The Object of Knowledge in Social Sciences which was published in Polish in 1979,...
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