States, Markets, and Academic Entrepreneurialism
PART I: THE CHANGINGSTATE/UNIVERSITY RELATIONSHIPS IN EUROPE
PART I THE CHANGING STATE/UNIVERSITY RELATIONSHIPS IN EUROPE Chapter 1 A Panoramic View: The Growing Complexity of the Academic Enterprise in Europe 1.1. Introduction The increasingly complicated picture of the academic enterprise in Europe is due to several general factors: they include globalization and Europeanization, educational expansion and massification of higher education, the economic crisis and public sector reforms, transformations of the state (including European welfare states) and the knowledge-driven economic competitiveness of nations and regions. Some factors, like expansion and massification or globalization and Europeanization, have exerted their influence for a few decades; others, like the economic crisis, for a few years. They can be put under four more general categories of external pressures exerted on higher education: economic (financial), political (ideological), social, and demographic. The factors generating change in national higher education policies and in national higher education systems have been multilayered, interrelated and often common throughout the continent. The growing complexity of the academic enterprise today is also due to the fact that higher education systems in Europe have been under powerful reform pressures.3 Reforms increasingly, and throughout the European continent, lead to further reforms rather than to reformed higher education systems, which supports arguments put forward by Nils Brunsson about all organizations in modern society: “large contemporary organizations, whether public or private, seem to be under almost perpetual reform- 3 It was the case throughout the last few decades. As Maurice Kogan and Stephen Hanney emphasized a decade ago, “perhaps no area of public policy has...
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