Tsunami in Kerala, India: Long-Term Psychological Distress, Sense of Coherence, Social Support, and Coping in a Non-Industrialized Setting
6 Research Questions and Hypotheses
Already existing studies investigated the consequences of comparable flood- disasters in different countries. The results were that flood victims showed more depressed symptoms, anxiety, traumatic stress, and emotional disorders than non-flood victims (McMillen, North, Mosley, & Smith, 2002). However, it has yet to be determined to what extent the indigenous peoples in tsunami- affected areas are still traumatized two and a half years after the disaster. In this context, the cross-cultural validity of the PTSD concept needs to be further ex- plored. In refugee groups from non-Western countries, for example, using the PTSD-checklist, there was a high construct-validity of the items in the symp- tom group “intrusion“ and “increased arousal“ However, this was not the case with the symptom group “avoidance/emotional numbing” (Joannidis, 2006). These ethno-cultural aspects have so far been neglected. Moreover, the patho- genetic processes leading to PTSD symptoms are well investigated, but not the personal resources such as a SOC, certain coping strategies, and perceived so- cial support that act as protective factors, especially in the case of flood disaster victims (Otto, Boos, Dalbert, Schöps & Hoyer, 2006). Furthermore, the find- ings published on how variables such as the severity of trauma (e.g. whether participants lost a family member, their home, or their means of earning a live- lihood) or demographic factors (e.g. level of education, age, or marital status) influence the degree of PTSD are far from being consistent. In order to contrib- ute to clarifying these issues, the following research questions have been de- rived. Moreover,...
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