Formen, Funktionen und Wirkungsmacht von Geschlechterkonstruktionen im Nationalsozialismus und ihre Reflexion in der pädagogischen Praxis
Edited By Anette Dietrich and Ljiljana Heise
Masculinity and NazismRaewyn Connell
Masculinity and Nazism Raewyn Connell Modern research on masculinities, which has helped to round out the terrain of gender research opened up by the Women’s Liberation movement and Women’s Studies, has often come up against the problem of violence. In most contemporary cultures, violence is coded masculine, and in most forms of violent conduct, men predominate. It has been easy to conclude that violence is somehow natural to men, and that there is a fixed connection between masculinity and violence. Yet large numbers of men are not violent, while levels of violence change in history and vary between cultures. Even major forms of violence that clearly do have a connection with mas- culinity occur in different configurations. Consider the different social patterns of domestic violence against women, military combat usually between men, and ho- mophobic violence against marginalized men. Social relations, as they are shaped by history, evidently have a lot to do with the problem. From this point of view, it is most valuable to have a fresh consideration of the construction of masculinities in the Nazi time. This was a short period of German history, but one that raises profound problems. In those years there was a remarka- ble concentration of violence in different forms. The different forms of violence include the street fighting of the Weimar-republic years; the repression of opposi- tion during the Machtergreifung and the purge in 1933–34; the concentration camps; anti-Semitic violence and the extermination camps; the vast destruction of Soviet people and...
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