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Internationale Studien zur Geschichte von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft

Teil 1 und Teil 2

Edited By Karl von Hardach

Wirtschafts- und Sozialhistoriker – gut eine halbe Hundertschaft aus zwölf Ländern – bieten einen bunten Strauß ihrer akademischen Arbeiten von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Zu Worte kommen Professoren und Praktiker (Anwälte und Archivare, Beamte und Bankiers, Gymnasiallehrer und Geschäftsleute – alle mit einem Herzen für die Historie). Sie bieten Einblicke in die Breite und Tiefe wirtschafts- und sozialgeschichtlicher Untersuchungen und belegen Methodenvielfalt und Darstellungsmannigfaltigkeit wie sie heute weltweit praktiziert werden. Der Band enthält Beiträge in deutscher und englischer Sprache.

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Polish Road to the Market Economy: Janusz Kalinski

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405 Polish Road to the Market Economy Janusz Kali�ski 1. Introduction of the centrally planned economy and partial attempts at its reform The basic goal of the systemic transformation initiated in 1989, was exchanging the centrally planned economy with market system and overcoming the negative social and economic outcomes of central planning. The planned (centrally ma- naged) economy was a consequence of influence, gained by the Soviet Union in Central Europe after World War II, and political system imposed by Moscow on many states of the region. Immediately after installing communist authorities in Poland, economic reforms, with primary focus on liquidation of private property as a basis of the market economy, were conducted. The role of the euphemistically called “socialized property”, consisting of state and cooperative ownership, was radically increased in the years 1944-1955, in accordance with the legislation of the period, as also due to the use of extralegal methods. Simultaneously, a system of central management of the economy, eliminating entrepreneurship and giving enormous power to party-state bureaucracy, was created.1 The systemic changes, introduced by the communist authorities, meant com- plete reorganization of the property structure of the economy towards extreme etatism. The rising role of the state is well exemplified also by the employment structure. Until 1955 the share of the “socialized” sector in employment (excluding, however, free professions based on self-employment or individual farmers) ex- ceeded 99%. The adequate share in national product amounted to 75%, reflecting big contribution of the agriculture, still dominated by individual...

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