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A Healthy Mix?

Health-Food Retail and Mixed-Use Development- Mobility-related Analysis of Grocery-Shopping Behavior in Irvine, California

Series:

Benjamin Heldt

Mixed-use developments are one of the means planners use to realize land-use changes required by SB375 to encounter climate change. The mix of land uses is intended to reduce distances between activities. However, for their economic viability, such projects require specialty retail as anchor tenants which draw a special customer base that may be willing to travel far. Consequently, specialty may contradict a mixed-use development’s intention to reduce traffic. This research looks into the spatial behavior of the customers of a health-food store that is located at the mixed-use development «Park Place» in Irvine, CA. Using a POS-intercept survey and GIS, the author found that regular health-food shoppers indeed travel significantly farther distances than occasional health-food shoppers.

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Figure 1.1: Composition of the study ......................................................................................... 4 Figure 2.1: Sprawl in Orange County, Calfornia, U.S.A.............................................................. 9 Figure 2.2: The sprawl: its causes, its consequences and mitigation measures...................... 12 Figure 3.1: An exemplary mixed use development, the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Germany 14 Figure 4.1: The buying decision process .................................................................................. 28 Figure 4.2: Theoretical framework .......................................................................................... 29 Figure 4.3: System of central places ........................................................................................ 32 Figure 4.4: Derivation of ranges of central places for convenience and specialty goods ....... 33 Figure 4.5: A consumer’s decision on multipurpose shopping ................................................ 36 Figure 4.6: Consumer’s decision between two different central places .................................. 38 Figure 4.7: Shopping travel distances depending on shopper type and type of product ........ 41 Figure 4.8: Destination choice and travel patterns for different types of grocery shopping .. 43 Figure 5.1: Methodological schedule ...................................................................................... 51 Figure 6.1: Development of Park Place.................................................................................... 67 Figure 6.2: Park Place – a walk to the store ............................................................................ 70 Figure 6.3: Mother’s Market and Kitchen, inside and outside ................................................ 72 Figure 6.4: Mean ratings of RCs’ and OCs’ motivations to choose the preferred store .......... 77 Figure B.1: Survey instrument: questionnaire ....................................................................... 122 Figure B.2: Guided-interview questions (Mother’s Market) .................................................. 125 Figure B.3: Guided-interview questions (City of Irvine) ......................................................... 125

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