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A Healthy Mix?

Health-Food Retail and Mixed-Use Development- Mobility-related Analysis of Grocery-Shopping Behavior in Irvine, California

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Benjamin Heldt

Mixed-use developments are one of the means planners use to realize land-use changes required by SB375 to encounter climate change. The mix of land uses is intended to reduce distances between activities. However, for their economic viability, such projects require specialty retail as anchor tenants which draw a special customer base that may be willing to travel far. Consequently, specialty may contradict a mixed-use development’s intention to reduce traffic. This research looks into the spatial behavior of the customers of a health-food store that is located at the mixed-use development «Park Place» in Irvine, CA. Using a POS-intercept survey and GIS, the author found that regular health-food shoppers indeed travel significantly farther distances than occasional health-food shoppers.

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Table 4.1: Assumed strengths of consumer behavior attributes tested ................................ 47 Table 4.2: Assumed correlations between distance to preferred store and motivations ...... 49 Table 5.1: Methods for data analysis used in the study ......................................................... 59 Table 6.1: Other retail stores and food places at Park Place .................................................. 71 Table 6.2: Statistics and test for difference of motivation ratings between RC and OC ........ 78 Table 6.3: Comparison of distances traveled by RCs to MMI and OCs to OTH ....................... 80 Table 6.4: Comparison of distances traveled by OCs to MMI and OTH .................................. 81 Table 6.5: Comparison of monthly kilometers traveled by RCs and OCs to preferred stores . 82 Table 6.6: Correlations between distances and motivations of RCs and OCs......................... 83 Table 6.7: Shopper type and mean distances traveled by RCs and OCs to preferred stores .. 85 Table 6.8: OCs by store type and corresponding distances traveled to preferred stores ....... 85 Table 6.9: Activities before shopping of RCs at MMI, and OCs at OTH and MMI .................. 87 Table A.1: Studies on land-use – transportation interaction, focusing on diversity, trip- chaining and activity spaces ............................................................................................... 114 Table A.2: Empiric studies on grocery shopping travel behavior and land use mix ............. 117 Table A.3: Theories applied, and their assumptions and critics ........................................... 114 Table B.1: Variables, operationalization, and scale .............................................................. 120 Table B.2: Statistical tests used, and their requirements ..................................................... 124 Table C.1: Crosstabs of the most important variables .......................................................... 126 Table C.2: Reasons for consumers to visit MMI .................................................................... 127 Table C.3: Reasons for consumers to visit OTH more often than MMI ................................. 127 Table C.4:...

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