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The Soviet Union and the United States

Rivals of the Twentieth Century: Coexistance and Competition

Edited By Eva-Maria Stolberg

The Soviet Union and the United States were involved in a complicate interplay of ideological, political, social and cultural factors, which wavered between open rivalry and cautious cooperation. Their relationship was fluctuating. Antagonism was accompanied with developing convergence. The main issue of this anthology is to discuss the attractiveness of polarity. Differing from Europe as well as from other parts of the world, both powers were provided with their history to expand their frontiers in the 19 th century. Territorial expansion and the discovery of new ideas and ideologies laid the foundation for their geopolitical hegemony in the 20 th century. International authoritative scholars from the United States, Switzerland and Germany give fresh insights in a new understanding of 20 th -century geopolitics.

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Martina Winkler: New Worlds? Russian Mental discoveries of the Northwest Pacific Region

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33 Martina Winkler New Worlds? Russian Mental discoveries of the Northwest Pacific Region1 The Alaska Purchase of 1867 belongs to the common trove of historical cu- riosities, yet the history of Russian possessions in America has been success- fully buried into oblivion. Modern patterns of political and geographical cultures do not fit well with this episode of Russian expansion, and the fact that there once was a “Russian America” seems odd and even uncomfortable to many observers.2 European and American notions of global geography are not only based on a very strong continental system that tends to imagine continents as enclosed and self-contained and to equate them with specific cultures.3 Modern Western conceptions also often consider the North American continent congruent with the United States of America. From this perspective of mingled political and geographic boundaries, any physical presence of Russia – the other superpower of the twentieth century – on the home continent of the United States quite logically appears to be wrong. In addition, Western mental maps as well as, in fact, two-dimensional “real” maps often do not acknowledge the relative proximity between the Russian East and the American west coast. Finally, America is usually located in “the West” and defined as “the world beyond the Atlantic ocean.”4 There are thus various reasons why the Russian “discovery” of the American continent from the Pacific rather than the Atlantic might seem strange and out of place. Many scholarly books on imperialism and 1 This is a slightly revised version of...

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