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Words and Expressions of Emotion in Medieval English

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Michiko Ogura

This monograph is a study of words and expressions of emotion found in Old and Middle English texts. Lexical variety, rivalry among synonyms, both native and non-native, and their successive replacement are discussed illustrated with a large number of examples. «Impersonal» and reflexive constructions, which give peculiar features to medieval texts, are examined, focusing on basic verbs of emotion. Words found in the Seven Deadly Sins and the contrasting use of the genitive and the of-phrase in God’s love and the love of God are treated as typical medieval themes. Appendices are added to illustrate the variant forms of these words and expressions in the versions of the Gospels and the Psalter, together with formulaic expressions of emotion in Old English poetry.

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Preface .................................................................................................................11 Table of Abbreviations ........................................................................................ 13 1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 15 2. Lexical Variety and Supersession .................................................................. 25 2.1 Old English Poetry .............................................................................. 25 2.2 Cura Pastoralis ................................................................................... 26 2.3 Orosius ................................................................................................ 27 2.4 Boethius .............................................................................................. 28 2.5 Gregory’s Dialogues ........................................................................... 31 2.6 Bede .................................................................................................... 35 2.7 Blickling Homilies ............................................................................... 35 2.8 The Gospels ........................................................................................ 36 2.9 The Psalter .......................................................................................... 39 2.10 The Hexateuch .................................................................................... 42 2.11 Ælfric .................................................................................................. 43 2.12 Wulfstan .............................................................................................. 45 2.13 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ................................................................ 46 2.14 Ormulum ............................................................................................ 46 2.15 Lambeth Homilies, etc......................................................................... 47 2.16 Laamon’s Brut ................................................................................... 49 2.17 The Katherine-Group .......................................................................... 49 2.18 Ancrene Wisse ..................................................................................... 50 2.19 Hali Meidenhad .................................................................................. 52 2.20 The Owl and the Nightingale .............................................................. 53 2.21 Genesis and Exodus ............................................................................ 53 2.22 King Horn ........................................................................................... 55 2.23 Havelok ............................................................................................... 55 2.24 Cursor Mundi ...................................................................................... 56 8 2.25 Piers the Plowman .............................................................................. 57 2.26 The Gawain-Group ............................................................................. 58 2.27 Morte Arthur ....................................................................................... 61 3. Synonyms in Some Semantic Fields of Emotion .......................................... 65 3.1 Anger .................................................................................................. 65 3.2 Fear ..................................................................................................... 68 3.3 Joy ....................................................................................................... 75 3.4 Sorrow ................................................................................................. 80 3.5 Comfort ............................................................................................... 82 3.6 Envy .................................................................................................... 85 3.7 Contrasting Words of Emotion ............................................................ 85 4. God’s Love and the Seven Deadly Sins ........................................................ 89 4.1 God’s Love and Love of God .............................................................. 89 4.2 The Seven Deadly Sins: A Lexical History ......................................... 92 4.2.1 Vercelli Homilies (x2) ............................................................. 94 4.2.2 Byrhtferth’s Manual (1011) .................................................... 94 4.2.3 Midlent Sunday in Ælfric’s Catholic Homilies (Thorpe) (x / xi) ..................................................................................... 95 4.2.4 Vices and Virtues (c1200) ....................................................... 96 4.2.5 Ancrene Wisse (MS. CCCC 402: c1225) ................................ 97 4.2.6 Ayenbit of Inwit (1340) ........................................................... 97 5. ‘Impersonal’ and Reflexive Constructions .................................................. 101 5.1 ‘Impersonals’ and Reflexives: Medieval Features ............................ 101 5.2 Statistic Results ................................................................................. 101 5.3 Verbs with ‘Impersonal’ and Reflexive Constructions...

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