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Dialect Contact and Social Networks

Language Change in an Anglophone Community in Japan

Series:

Keiko Hirano

This book explores a dialect contact situation in a second language setting – native speakers of English coming to Japan from different parts of the world as English teachers. It focuses on an Anglophone community in which speakers are socially and geographically mobile and have loose-knit networks with speakers of different languages and dialects. This longitudinal sociolinguistic study aims to investigate the relatively short-term linguistic changes induced by frequent face-to-face interaction with speakers of different dialects and to illustrate the impact of social network effects. Statistical analyses reveal that the individual speakers’ interpersonal ties are important factors that influence the linguistic behaviour of the speakers in a dialect contact situation in an L2 setting.

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Contents ............................................................................................................... vii List of Figures ..................................................................................................... xv List of Tables ...................................................................................................... xix List of Maps ....................................................................................................... xxv List of Abbreviations ....................................................................................... xxvii 1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 1 2 English Education and the Anglophone Community in Japan ..................... 9 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 9 2.2 English Education in Japan and Demand for Native-speaking English Teachers ..................................................................................... 9 2.3 The Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) Programme and Other Employment as English Teachers ......................................................... 12 2.4 The Anglophone Community of Japan and Their Social Networks ............................................................................................... 15 2.4.1 Contact with native speakers of English in an L2 situation.............. 15 2.4.2 Contact with non-native speakers of English at work and outside work ...................................................................................... 19 2.4.3 Social network effects on linguistic behaviour ................................. 22 2.5 Summary ............................................................................................... 24 viii 3 Theoretical Background and Previous Research ........................................ 25 3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 25 3.2 Dialect Contact ...................................................................................... 25 3.2.1 Accommodation theory ..................................................................... 26 3.2.2 Dialect acquisition and long-term accommodation .......................... 31 3.2.2.1 Studies in dialect acquisition in children .................................... 31 3.2.2.2 Studies in long-term accommodation in adults .......................... 33 3.2.3 New-dialect formation ...................................................................... 37 3.2.4 Application of long-term accommodation and new-dialect formation in the present study........................................................... 41 3.3 Contact with Non-native Speakers of English ...................................... 43 3.3.1 ‘Foreigner talk’ and ‘teacher talk’ .................................................... 43 3.3.2 Application of long-term adoption of speech style directed to non-NSsE in the present study .......................................................... 45 3.4 Social Network Analysis ....................................................................... 46 3.4.1 Studies of strong social networks ..................................................... 48 3.4.2 Studies of weak ties and weak social networks ................................ 50 3.4.3 Approaching and measuring social network structure ...................... 53 3.4.4 Application of social network analysis in the present study ............ 58 3.5 Summary ............................................................................................... 60 4 Hypotheses and Research Questions ........................................................... 61 4.1 Introduction...

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