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Time Works Wonders

Selected Papers in Contrastive and Cognitive Linguistics

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Tomasz P. Krzeszowski

The volume consists of reprints of papers originally published between 1967 and 2009, divided into two parts, only apparently devoted to two different areas of linguistics but in fact constituting a coherent whole. The «cognitive» part is an inevitable consequence of the «contrastive» part. In the first part such terms as «congruence», «equivalence» and «tertium comparationis», as well as fundamental principles of classical, structural contrastive studies are defined and implemented in actual contrastive analyses. In addition, the first outlines of contrastive generative grammar with its limitations inherent in all generative grammars are presented. The second part capitalizes on this shortcoming and contains articles which lay foundations of cognitively based contrastive studies. It also introduces axiological semantics as being crucially important in analysing metaphors, discourse and metalanguage, as well as in contrastive studies and translation.

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Introduction by Jacek Fisiak..................................................................... 7 Part I: Contrastive linguistics ................................................................. 11 Fundamental principles of structural contrastive studies ....................... 13 Equivalence, congruence and deep structure ......................................... 21 On some linguistic limitations of classical contrastive analyses ............ 35 Contrastive Generative Grammar .............................................................. 43 Contrastive analysis in a new dimension .................................................. 53 The problem of equivalence revisited .................................................... 67 Quantitative contrastive analysis ............................................................ 87 What do we need lexical contrastive studies for? .................................. 99 Tertium comparationis ......................................................................... 117 The so-called ‘sign theory’ as the first method in contrastive linguistics ........................................................................................ 129 An Elizabethan contrastive grammar of Spanish and French .............. 145 Contrastive neurolinguistics: Between science and science fiction ..... 153 Part II: Cognitive linguistics ................................................................ 167 Prototypes and equivalence .................................................................. 169 Language as the material substance (“tworzywo”) of literature ............... 187 The axiological aspect of idealized cognitive models .............................. 201 Metaphor – metaphorization – cognition ............................................. 231 The exculpation of the Conduit Metaphor ........................................... 247 The axiological structure of discourse ................................................. 255 The axiological parameter in preconceptual image schemata .............. 273 Is ‘good’ a polysemous lexical item? ................................................... 295 Is ‘literary text’ a radial category? A warning for those who attempt to apply prototypes to literary studies ................................ 305 Transmogrification ............................................................................... 327 From target to source: Metaphors made real ........................................ 335 Metaphors of discourse: Between co-operative and oppositional discourses ........................................................................................ 357 Barriers in communication ................................................................... 369 Pre-axiological schemas updated ......................................................... 385 A tract about wine in the Bible ............................................................ 411 On the metalanguage of cognitive grammar ........................................ 423

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