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Rule-extension Strategies in Ancient India

Ritual, Exegetical and Linguistic Considerations on the "tantra</I>- and "prasaṅga</I>-Principles

Elisa Freschi and Tiziana Pontillo

This study focuses on the devices implemented in Classical Indian texts on ritual and language in order to develop a structure of rules in an economic and systematic way. These devices presuppose a spatial approach to ritual and language, one which deals for instance with absences as substitutions within a pre-existing grid, and not as temporal disappearances. In this way, the study reveals a key feature of some among the most influential schools of Indian thought.
The sources are Kalpasūtra, Vyākaraṇa and Mīmāṃsā, three textual traditions which developed alongside each other, sharing – as the volume shows – common presuppositions and methodologies. The book will be of interest for Sanskritists, scholars of ritual exegesis and of the history of linguistics.

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abhivṛt- (to repeat), 14, 15, 158 abhūtapūrva ([something] which was not there before), 111 abhyāsa (repetition), see also āvṛtti, 151 ādeśa (specific instruction; substitute), 2, 81, 86, 87, 92, 100, 101, 106–114, 117, 119, 120, 123, 124, 126, 127, 159 Agnisvāmin, 11 analogical extension (see also atideśa), 112 anekānta (non integrated), 89 aṅga (pre-affixal base), 60 antaraṅga ([a rule] which is “internal”, and hence precedes in its application), 87, 108 anvaya (concurrent occurrence), 2 apavāda (exception), 70, 78, 108, 120 atideśa (analogical extension), 2, 68, 152 atyantapradeśa (indication reaching all [performances]), 12, 28 āvāpa (inserted rite), 24, 36, 37 āvāpa (separate application of a ritual element), 151 āvṛtti (repetition, see also abhyāsa), 45, 151 bahiraṅga ([a rule] which is “external”, and hence follows in its application), 108 bheda (split), 32, 38, 42, 44, 45, 148, 149 bhūtapūrva ([something] which was already there before), 111 Brāhmaṇa, 8, 20, 23, 24, 125 Carakasaṃhitā, 152 Cārvāka, 54, 55 cognitive interpretation in Patañjali, 86, 105, 109, 111, 138 context (see also prakaraṇa), 80 ekādeśa (substitution of one sound for two or more), 87 ekānta (integrated), 89 Elsewhere Condition, 121 exception (apavāda), 66, 78, 81, 100, 101, 107–109, 114–116, 118, 121 expiatory rite (see also prāyaścitta), 76 general rule (see also utsarga), 23 jñāpaka (indirect...

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