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Languages at War: External Language Spread Policies in Lusophone Africa

Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau at the Turn of the 21 st Century

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Carla Figueira

This study explores the argument that postcolonial Africa has been the setting for competing external language spread policies (LSPs) by ex-colonial European countries at the turn of the 21 st Century. It focuses on the external LSPs developed by the governments of Portugal, Brazil, United Kingdom, France and Germany towards Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau from the 1990s to the present. The study offers a perspective on the web of relationships involving European ex-colonial powers and the African postcolonial countries of Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. The author seeks to examine the development of external (European) LSPs and the construction of politico-linguistic blocs in a complex context whilst taking into account the colonial heritage and its lingering dependencies, the construction and maintenance of nationhood and the increasing globalisation of the world.

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ACALAN African Academy of Languages ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States AEMO Associação de Escritores Moçambicanos / Mozambican Writers Association (Mozambique) AIDAB Australian International Development Assistance Bureau AMOLP Associação Moçambicana da Língua Portuguesa / Mozambican As- sociation of Portuguese Language APAD Agência Portuguesa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento / Portuguese Development Support Agency (Portugal) BBC British Broadcasting Corporation (UK) BC British Council (UK) CCBM Centro Cultural Brasil - Moçambique CCBGB Centro Cultural Brasil – Guiné-Bissau CCFM Centro Cultural Franco - Moçambicano / Franco-Mozambican Cul- tural Centre (Mozambique) CCFGB Centre Culturel Franco-Bissao-Guinéen CCP/IC Centro Cultural Português / Instituto Camões CEB Centro de Estudos Brasileiros / Brazilian Studies Centre CIDAC Centro de Intervenção para o Desenvolvimento Amílcar Cabral (Portugal) CLP/IC Centro de Língua Portuguesa / Instituto Camões CPLP Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa / Community of Por- tuguese Language Countries or Community of Portuguese- Speaking Countries DAC Development Assistance Committee, part of OECD DENARP Documento de Estratégia Nacional de Redução da Pobreza DFID Department for International Development (UK) DGCID Direction Générale de la Cooperation Internationale et du Dévelop- pement (MAE, France) ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States EFA Education for All ELT English Language Teaching ENSTT Escola Normal Superior Tchico Té (Guinea-Bissau) FEC Fundação Evangelização e Culturas / Evangelisation and Cultures Foundation (Portugal) FRELIMO Frente de Libertação de Moçambique / Liberation Front of...

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