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Languages at War: External Language Spread Policies in Lusophone Africa

Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau at the Turn of the 21 st Century

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Carla Figueira

This study explores the argument that postcolonial Africa has been the setting for competing external language spread policies (LSPs) by ex-colonial European countries at the turn of the 21 st Century. It focuses on the external LSPs developed by the governments of Portugal, Brazil, United Kingdom, France and Germany towards Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau from the 1990s to the present. The study offers a perspective on the web of relationships involving European ex-colonial powers and the African postcolonial countries of Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. The author seeks to examine the development of external (European) LSPs and the construction of politico-linguistic blocs in a complex context whilst taking into account the colonial heritage and its lingering dependencies, the construction and maintenance of nationhood and the increasing globalisation of the world.

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Table of Contents

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Chapter 1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 19 1.1 Research Topic ..................................................................................... 19 1.2 Literature Review ................................................................................. 24 1.3 Theoretical Framework ......................................................................... 30 1.4 Overview of the Study .......................................................................... 32 Chapter 2 Language and Power .......................................................................... 35 2.1 Language and the State ......................................................................... 36 2.1.1 Definitions of Nation-State and National Identity ............................. 36 2.1.2 Language and the Nation-State .......................................................... 38 2.1.3 Acting on Languages ......................................................................... 40 2.1.3.1 Language Policy and Language Planning ....................................... 40 2.1.3.2 Language Spread Policy ................................................................. 41 2.1.3.3 Foreign Policy, Cultural Relations and External Language Spread Policy ...................................................................................... 42 2.1.3.4 External Language Spread Policy ................................................... 46 2.2 Language, Colonialism and Postcolonialism ........................................ 54 2.2.1 Legacies of Colonialism .................................................................... 55 2.2.2 Languages and the Postcolonial State in Africa ................................ 61 2.2.2.1 European Languages as Official Languages ................................... 65 2.2.2.2 Local Languages and Cultures ........................................................ 70 2.2.3 Language Relations ........................................................................... 76 2.2.3.1 Linguistic Imperialism .................................................................... 81 2.2.3.1.1 Critiques ....................................................................................... 85 2.3 Language and Globalisation ................................................................. 88 2.3.1 Political Blocs based on Culture and Language ................................ 88 2.3.1.1 Multiple Connections in Lusophone Africa ................................... 90 2.3.1.2 Anglophone, Francophone, Lusophone and Latin Bloc ................. 92 2.3.2 Africa, Languages and States in a Globalising World ....................... 99 16 2.3.2.1 Language and Culture in a Globalising World ............................... 99 2.3.2.2 State, Identity and Culture: New Challenges ................................ 103 2.3.2.3 African Struggle for Development ............................................... 107 Chapter 3 Methodology .................................................................................... 113 3.1 Research Questions and Objectives .................................................... 113 3.2 Research Assumptions ........................................................................ 115 3.2.1 Ontology and Epistemology ............................................................ 117 3.2.2 Methodology .................................................................................... 118 3.3 Research Design ................................................................................. 120 3.4 Research Methodology ....................................................................... 123 3.4.1 Research Population ........................................................................ 126 3.4.1.1 Sampling ....................................................................................... 127 3.5 Data Sources, Collection Methods and Analysis ................................ 129 3.5.1 Elite Interviewing ............................................................................ 130 3.5.1.1 Interviews in Practice ................................................................... 131 3.5.1.1.1 Mozambique .............................................................................. 133 3.5.1.1.2 Guinea-Bissau ............................................................................ 133 3.5.2...

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