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Application Coordination in Pervasive Systems

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Verena Majuntke

Pervasive applications are designed to support users in their daily life. For this purpose, applications interact with their environment, i.e. their context. They are able to adapt themselves to context changes or to explicitly change the context via actuators. If multiple applications are executed in the same context, interferences are likely to occur. To manage interferences, a coordination framework is presented in this thesis. Interferences are detected using a context model and information about applications’ interaction with the context. The resolution of interference is achieved through a coordinated application adaptation. The thesis introduces the theoretical concepts, presents a prototypical implementation and evaluates the prototype through extensive measurements.

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1 Introduction 1 1.1 Pervasive Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Business Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.4 Research Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.5 Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.6 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Background 11 2.1 Pervasive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Applications in Pervasive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.2.1 Classification Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.1.1 Context Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2.1.2 Adaptation Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.1.3 Adaptation Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.1.4 Architectural Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.2 Classification of Existing Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.3 Pervasive Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.3 Interference in Pervasive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3 Coordination: System Model and Requirements 31 3.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.2 Application Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 ix x Contents 3.3 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 I System Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 II System Autonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 III Runtime Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 IV Application-Specific Interferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 V Minimal User Distraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 VI Strategy-Based Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 VII Correctness of Interference Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 VIII Completeness of Interference Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4 Related Work 41 4.1 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.2 Application Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.2.1 Interference Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4.2.2 Interference Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5 Framework for Application Coordination 53 5.1 Design Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.1.1 Cross-System Coordination Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.1.2 Extension of Existing Application Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.1.3 Strategy-Based Application Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5.2 Framework Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 5.3 System Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 5.3.1 Context Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 5.3.1.1 Context Ontology and Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5.3.1.2 Interference Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 5.3.1.3 Context Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5.4 Application Coordination Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.4.1 Interference Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.4.2 Interference Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Contents xi 5.4.2.1 Interference Resolution Plan Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.4.2.2 Interference Resolution Plan Problem as CSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5.4.2.3 Algorithms for Constraint Satisfaction Problems . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5.4.2.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.4.2.5 Coordination Strategy Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6 Application Coordination...

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